22 research outputs found

    Creating custodians of heritage : a multiple case study perspective of United Kingdom World Heritage sites

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    Research within cultural heritage and World Heritage Site management demonstrates the importance of conservation and effective managerial approaches for the protection of historical assets. However, World Heritage Sites are often characterised by multiple ownership patterns and diverse stakeholder interests, rendering collective and amicable management challenging. Therefore, through combining stewardship and stakeholder theories this research aims to develop a ‘custodianship behaviour model’ for the management of World Heritage Sites. This model focuses on developing custodianship behaviours among representatives within WHS management approaches and wider stakeholders. To accomplish this, the methodology of this thesis is grounded in a multiple case study approach focusing on three World Heritage Sites: Edinburgh’s Old and New Towns, Derwent Valley Mills, and the Antonine Wall. Data collection techniques include semi-structured interviews, documentary analysis, and physical artefacts. The collected evidence was analysed through template analysis. This study found that environments which endorse collaboration, involvement, open communication, trust and participatory decision-making are starting points in developing custodianship behaviours among managers. The findings also indicate that through engagement strategies, particularly ones which embrace participatory and continual engagement, managers were able to foster custodianship behaviours among external stakeholders. Despite custodianship behaviours being apparent, there are challenges which act as impediments and include: irregular interactions between managers, working groups not functioning, conflicting agendas and controversial decision-making. This research also stresses the importance of two emerging themes which can constrain or support custodianship – resources and time. Fostering custodianship is also dependent on a dedicated team that are devoted to WHS management and are able to develop and maintain stakeholder relationships. Underlining the theoretical and contextual contribution, this study ends with the presentation of a custodianship behaviour model (see Figure 21). WHS managers can use this model to develop favourable behaviours among site managers and stakeholders. To conclude, this research suggests proposes a number of recommendations for managerial practise, as well as reflection on the study’s limitations and areas of future research

    Negotiation, bargaining, and discounts:generating WoM and local tourism development at the Tabriz bazaar, Iran

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    This paper examines the effects of negotiation intention, bargaining propensity, and discount satisfaction on word-of-mouth (WoM) behaviours for tourists visiting Tabriz bazaar, Iran. Data from 615-survey respondents highlight that tourists are motivated to conduct WoM behaviour when they are experientially satisfied with the opportunity to negotiate and bargain, and when they are satisfied with the discount they receive. This paper makes theoretical contributions to social exchange theory and presents managerial implications for policy-makers to generate tourism development

    Islamic heritage marketing : the Umrah experience

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    A potential visitor’s image of a destination and its attributes is likely to influence their behaviour before, during, and after their trip. However, there is a lack of research into Islamic destination image (Jafari & Scott, 2013; Stephenson, 2014). Existing studies have commented on the differentiation between the expectation formation of Muslim and non-Muslim tourists; however these are often restricted to more secular destinations such as Turkey. Moreover, much of the literature which focuses solely on the Muslim community fails to explore beyond the realms of religious satisfaction of their experiences. This paper explores the journey of experience of Muslim pilgrims during the Islamic pilgrimage to the Umrah. Globally, the Hajj is one of the greatest traveller movements, demonstrating a significant rationale for the study of Islam within the heritage tourism domain. Islamic texts, such as the Quran, endorse traveling with a view to attaining social, physical and spiritual objectives. As such, tourism of various categories is compatible with Islam and inspired by its principles. However, the Hajj and Umrah is a highly commanded activity encompassing devout and monetary planning. Therefore, for some Muslims Hajj is a sacred obligation rather than form of heritage tourism. With this in mind, religious pilgrimage is likely to have a very strong destination image in the minds of Muslim visitors. Therefore, this paper looks not only at sacred obligation but also attitudes such as hedonic value, motivations, socialisation, gift, and evidence. Therefore, our study contributes to a wider understanding of the perceptions and behavioural outcomes of visitors toward Islamic destination image. To do so, we develop a conceptual model based i=on the theory of the ‘commodity fetishism’. The term ‘commodity fetishism’ refers to the system through which capitalist societies treat ‘commodities as if value inhered in the objects themselves, rather than in the amount of real labour expended to produce the object’. Thus, this paper attempts to address two gaps, firstly examining the symbolic importance to pilgrims of material objects of pilgrimage, and secondly examining this symbolic experience in the Islamic context of Umrah. Our survey data was collected in a number of tourists agents within Iran from Muslim pilgrims preceding their visit to the Umrah and returning home. Structural equation modelling is tested with a sample of 538 visitors. The empirical validation of the conceptual model supports a majority of the research hypotheses. These findings contribute to a better understanding of Islamic destination image in the heritage tourism context and a series of implications are proposed

    The complexities of cultural heritage management, a case study of Edinburgh's Old and New Towns World Heritage Site

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    This dissertation explores the difficulties of cultural heritage management through the lens of stakeholder theory. The literature review examined the current body of academic research in the areas of cultural heritage management, World Heritage Sites, stakeholder collaboration within cultural heritage management, and stakeholder theory. The literature uncovered that, despite the wealth of research in respects to the difficulties of cultural heritage management, and the prevailing discourse of stakeholder collaboration, there appears to be an overly prescriptive and positivist approach to research in both fields. Interestingly, in relation to cultural heritage management research, few studies focus on the managers and how dealing with multiple stakeholders impacts on their decisions and administration of heritage sites; instead tend to focus on local communities and the tourism industry. Therefore, this research aimed to get to the core of these managerial complexities through a case study analysis of Edinburgh's Old and New Towns, a United Kingdom World Heritage Site. The information gathered for this research was accomplished through a series of semi-structured interviews with managers responsible for the administration of Edinburgh's World Heritage. This research found that Edinburgh's heritage managers faced many of the common problems already professed throughout academia. However, unlike past research this study investigated deeper into the heritage manager's role. This included highlighting the pressures on daily activities and administrative decisions, and the institutional difficulties which dominate managerial roles. Also, this research demonstrates that while stakeholder collaboration can lead to constructive frameworks for successful heritage management, this is over ambitious. This is because, in Edinburgh's case, many managerial difficulties originate from stakeholder groups pressure regardless of managerial actions to encourage collaboration. Additionally, deeper analysis discovered numerous issues which current studies fail to fully acknowledge. This includes the pressures of inter-managerial relationships, and the need for development in the face of persistent opposition.This dissertation explores the difficulties of cultural heritage management through the lens of stakeholder theory. The literature review examined the current body of academic research in the areas of cultural heritage management, World Heritage Sites, stakeholder collaboration within cultural heritage management, and stakeholder theory. The literature uncovered that, despite the wealth of research in respects to the difficulties of cultural heritage management, and the prevailing discourse of stakeholder collaboration, there appears to be an overly prescriptive and positivist approach to research in both fields. Interestingly, in relation to cultural heritage management research, few studies focus on the managers and how dealing with multiple stakeholders impacts on their decisions and administration of heritage sites; instead tend to focus on local communities and the tourism industry. Therefore, this research aimed to get to the core of these managerial complexities through a case study analysis of Edinburgh's Old and New Towns, a United Kingdom World Heritage Site. The information gathered for this research was accomplished through a series of semi-structured interviews with managers responsible for the administration of Edinburgh's World Heritage. This research found that Edinburgh's heritage managers faced many of the common problems already professed throughout academia. However, unlike past research this study investigated deeper into the heritage manager's role. This included highlighting the pressures on daily activities and administrative decisions, and the institutional difficulties which dominate managerial roles. Also, this research demonstrates that while stakeholder collaboration can lead to constructive frameworks for successful heritage management, this is over ambitious. This is because, in Edinburgh's case, many managerial difficulties originate from stakeholder groups pressure regardless of managerial actions to encourage collaboration. Additionally, deeper analysis discovered numerous issues which current studies fail to fully acknowledge. This includes the pressures of inter-managerial relationships, and the need for development in the face of persistent opposition

    International Advertising and Communications

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    Case Studies and Data

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