7 research outputs found

    Effects of silicon addition to rice plants (TN1) on food consumption efficiency in third instars of <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i>.

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    <p>A: Food consumed, B: relative consumption rate (<i>RCR</i>), C: relative growth rate (<i>RGR</i>), D: approximate digestibility (<i>AD</i>), E: efficiency of conversion of ingested food (<i>ECI</i>), F: efficiency of conversion of digested food (<i>ECD</i>). Values are expressed as means ± SE. Bars with different letters are significantly different (Tukey’s multiple range test, <i>P</i> = 0.05). Numbers in bars indicate replications.</p

    Effects of silicon addition on silicon and soluble sugar content and C:N ratio in the reciprocal fourth leaves and stems.

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    <p>A: Silicon content in rice leaves, B: silicon content in rice stems, C: soluble sugar content in rice leaves, D: C:N ratio in rice leaves. Values are expressed as means ± SE. Bars with different letters are significantly different (Tukey’s multiple range test, <i>P</i> = 0.05). Numbers in bars indicate replications.</p

    Three-way analysis of variance for significance (<i>P</i> value) of the effects of silicon amendment to plants, <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i> infestation and infestation time on enzyme activities and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein.

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    <p>Three-way analysis of variance for significance (<i>P</i> value) of the effects of silicon amendment to plants, <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i> infestation and infestation time on enzyme activities and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein.</p

    Scanning electron micrographs with 300× magnification from a cross section of rice leaf surface.

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    <p>The rice plants were amended with silicon at 0.32 g Si/kg soil (+Si) or not (-Si) and infested with <i>C</i>. <i>medinalis</i> larvae (+LF) or not (-LF). SC = silica cell. A: -Si-LF; B: -Si+LF; C: +Si-LF; D: +Si+LF.</p

    Effects of silicon amendment and <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i> infestation treatments on silicification of rice leaves.

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    <p>Effects of silicon amendment and <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i> infestation treatments on silicification of rice leaves.</p

    Defense Responses in Rice Induced by Silicon Amendment against Infestation by the Leaf Folder <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i>

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    <div><p>Silicon (Si) amendment to plants can confer enhanced resistance to herbivores. In the present study, the physiological and cytological mechanisms underlying the enhanced resistance of plants with Si addition were investigated for one of the most destructive rice pests in Asian countries, the rice leaf folder, <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i> (Guenée). Activities of defense-related enzymes, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and polyphenol oxidase, and concentrations of malondialdehyde and soluble protein in leaves were measured in rice plants with or without leaf folder infestation and with or without Si amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil. Silicon amendment significantly reduced leaf folder larval survival. Silicon addition alone did not change activities of defense-related enzymes and malondialdehyde concentration in rice leaves. With leaf folder infestation, activities of the defense-related enzymes increased and malondialdehyde concentration decreased in plants amended with Si. Soluble protein content increased with Si addition when the plants were not infested, but was reduced more in the infested plants with Si amendment than in those without Si addition. Regardless of leaf folder infestation, Si amendment significantly increased leaf Si content through increases in the number and width of silica cells. Our results show that Si addition enhances rice resistance to the leaf folder through priming the feeding stress defense system, reduction in soluble protein content and cell silicification of rice leaves.</p></div

    Effects of silicon amendment and <i>Cnaphalocrocis medinalis</i> infestation on soluble protein content in rice leaves.

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    <p>+Si = silicon amendment at 0.32 g Si/kg soil to rice plants,–Si = no silicon amendment. +LF = infestation of <i>C</i>. <i>medinalis</i> larvae,–LF = no infestation. Values are means ± SE from 3 replicates measured with different leaf samples. The means labeled by different letters at a certain time point post <i>C</i>. <i>medinalis</i> infestation are significantly different at <i>P</i> < 0.05 according to Tukey’s multiple range tests.</p
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