2,724 research outputs found

    Non-Abelian Majorana modes protected by an emergent second Chern number

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    The search for topological superconductors and non-Abelian Majorana modes ranks among the most fascinating topics in condensed matter physics. There now exist several fundamental superconducting phases which host symmetry protected or chiral Majorana modes. The latter, namely the chiral Majorana modes are protected by Chern numbers in even dimensions. Here we propose to observe novel chiral Majorana modes by realizing Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov state, i.e. the pairing density wave (PDW) phase in a Weyl semimetal which breaks time-reversal symmetry. Without symmetry protection, the 3D gapped PDW phase is topologically trivial. However, a vortex line generated in such phase can host chiral Majorana modes, which are shown to be protected by an emergent second Chern number of a synthetic 4D space generalized from the PDW phase. We further show that these chiral modes in the vortex rings obey 3D non-Abelian loop-braiding statistics, which can be applied to topological quantum computation.Comment: 5 pages + supplementary matrial. Reference and some discussions are update

    Spin dynamics in the strong spin-orbit coupling regime

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    We study the spin dynamics in a high-mobility two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with generic spin-orbit interactions (SOIs). We derive a set of spin dynamic equations which capture the purely exponential to the damped oscillatory spin evolution modes observed in different regimes of SOI strength. Hence we provide a full treatment of the D'yakonov-Perel's mechanism by using the microscopic linear response theory from the weak to the strong SOI limit. We show that the damped oscillatory modes appear when the electron scattering time is larger than half of the spin precession time due to the SOI, in agreement with recent observations. We propose a new way to measure the scattering time and the relative strength of Rashba and linear Dresselhaus SOIs based on these modes and optical grating experiments. We discuss the physical interpretation of each of these modes in the context of Rabi oscillation.Comment: 8 pages, 9 figure

    Topological Spin Texture in a Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator

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    The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect has been recently discovered in experiment using thin-film topological insulator with ferromagnetic ordering and strong spin-orbit coupling. Here we investigate the spin degree of freedom of a QAH insulator and uncover a fundamental phenomenon that the edge states exhibit topologically stable spin texture in the boundary when a chiral-like symmetry is present. This result shows that edge states are chiral in both the orbital and spin degrees of freedom, and the chiral edge spin texture corresponds to the bulk topological states of the QAH insulator. We also study the potential applications of the edge spin texture in designing topological-state-based spin devices which might be applicable to future spintronic technologies.Comment: 5 pages manuscript, 8+ pages supplementary information, 8 figures; published versio

    Practical Fine-grained Privilege Separation in Multithreaded Applications

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    An inherent security limitation with the classic multithreaded programming model is that all the threads share the same address space and, therefore, are implicitly assumed to be mutually trusted. This assumption, however, does not take into consideration of many modern multithreaded applications that involve multiple principals which do not fully trust each other. It remains challenging to retrofit the classic multithreaded programming model so that the security and privilege separation in multi-principal applications can be resolved. This paper proposes ARBITER, a run-time system and a set of security primitives, aimed at fine-grained and data-centric privilege separation in multithreaded applications. While enforcing effective isolation among principals, ARBITER still allows flexible sharing and communication between threads so that the multithreaded programming paradigm can be preserved. To realize controlled sharing in a fine-grained manner, we created a novel abstraction named ARBITER Secure Memory Segment (ASMS) and corresponding OS support. Programmers express security policies by labeling data and principals via ARBITER's API following a unified model. We ported a widely-used, in-memory database application (memcached) to ARBITER system, changing only around 100 LOC. Experiments indicate that only an average runtime overhead of 5.6% is induced to this security enhanced version of application