11,450 research outputs found

    Metaphorically Speaking

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    Medical Care of the Aged

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    Monopole clusters and critical dynamics in four-dimensional U(1)

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    We investigate monopoles in four-dimensional compact U(1) with Wilson action. We focus our attention on monopole clusters as they can be identified unambiguously contrary to monopole loops. We locate the clusters and determine their properties near the U(1) phase transition. The Coulomb phase is characterized by several small clusters, whereas in the confined phase the small clusters coalesce to one large cluster filling up the whole system. We find that clusters winding around the periodic lattice are absent within both phases and during the transition. However, within the confined phase, we observe periodically closed monopole loops if cooling is applied.Comment: 3 pages, Wuppertal preprint WUB 93-3

    Internet Peering as a Network of Relations

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    We apply results from recent theoretical work on networks of relations to analyze optimal peering strategies for asymmetric ISPs. It is shown that - from a network of relations perspective – ISPs’ asymmetry in bilateral peering agreements need not be a problem, since when these form a closed network, asymmetries are pooled and information transmission is faster. Both these effects reduce the incentives for opportunism in general, and interconnection quality degradation in particular. We also explain why bilateral monetary transfers between asymmetric ISPs (Bilateral Paid Peering), though potentially good for bilateral peering, may have rather negative effects on the sustainability of the overall peering network

    Networks of Relations

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    We model networks of relational (or implicit) contracts, exploring how sanctioning power and equilibrium conditions change under different network configurations and information transmission technologies. In our model, relations are the links, and the value of the network lies in its ability to enforce cooperative agreements that could not be sustained if agents had no access to other network members’ sanctioning power and information. We identify conditions for network stability and in-network information transmission as well as conditions under which stable subnetworks inhibit more valuable larger networks

    Ozone Measurements in the Mesosphere During a Solar Proton Event

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    Charged particle precipitation in the Earth's atmosphere produces odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen. These species take part in catalytic reactions which destroy atmospheric ozone in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Modeling efforts regarding the impact of these ionization events on the neutral atmosphere describe ozone depletions in good agreement with observations in the stratosphere and mesosphere. The photochemical effects of the solar proton event (SPE) of August 1972 are discussed, and calculations for higher altitudes (70 to 90 km) are presented that indicate after a brief reduction during and immediately following intense particle precipitation, ozone will later reach higher concentrations than those present before the event

    First-Order Signals in Compact QED with Monopole Suppressed Boundaries

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    Pure gauge compact QED on hypercubic lattices is considered with periodically closed monopole currents suppressed. We compute observables on sublattices which are nested around the centre of the lattice in order to locate regions where translation symmetry is approximately recovered. Our Monte Carlo simulations on 24424^4-lattices give indications for a first-order nature of the U(1) phase transition.Comment: 3 pages, uuencoded Z-compressed .tar file, to appear in proceedings of lattice 9

    Moral Hazard and the Internal Organization of Joint Research

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    joint projects, internal organization, agency problems, synergies

    Internet Peering as a Network of Relations

    Get PDF
    We apply results from recent theoretical work on networks of relations to analyze optimal peering strategies for asymmetric ISPs. It is shown that - from a network of relations perspective – ISPs’ asymmetry in bilateral peering agreements need not be a problem, since when these form a closed network, asymmetries are pooled and information transmission is faster. Both these effects reduce the incentives for opportunism in general, and interconnection quality degradation in particular. We also explain why bilateral monetary transfers between asymmetric ISPs (Bilateral Paid Peering), though potentially good for bilateral peering, may have rather negative effects on the sustainability of the overall peering network.
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