87 research outputs found

    Choosing the safest acute combination therapy during prophylactic treatment. pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic considerations

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    Drugs used in the treatment of migraine have been recently reported to be highly associated with the occurrence of clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs)

    Eletriptan in the management of acute migraine. An update on the evidence for efficacy, safety, and consistent response

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    Migraine is a multifactorial, neurological and disabling disorder, also characterized by several autonomic symptoms. Triptans, selective serotonin 5-HT1B/1D agonists, are the first-line treatment option for moderate-to-severe headache attacks. In this paper, we review the recent data on eletriptan clinical efficacy, safety, and tolerability, and potential clinically relevant interactions with other drugs. Among triptans, eletriptan shows a consistent and significant clinical efficacy and a good tolerability profile in the treatment of migraine, especially for patients with cardiovascular risk factors without coronary artery disease. It shows the most favorable clinical response, together with sumatriptan injections, zolmitriptan and rizatriptan. Additionally, eletriptan shows the most complex pharmacokinetic/dynamic profile compared with the other triptans. It is metabolized primarily by the CYP3A4 hepatic enzyme and therefore the concomitant administration of CYP3A4-potent inhibitors should be carefully evaluated. A relatively low risk of serotonin syndrome is given by the co-administration with serotoninergic drugs. No clinically relevant interaction has been found with drugs used for migraine prophylactic treatment or other acute drugs, with the exception of ergot derivatives that should not be co-administered with eletriptan

    Changing the approach to anticoagulant therapy in older patients with multimorbidity using a precision medicine approach

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    The ageing of the world population has resulted in an increase in the number of older patients with multimorbid conditions receiving multiple therapies. This emerging clinical scenario poses new challenges, which are mostly related to the increased incidence of adverse effects. This translates into poor clinical care, reduced cost-effectiveness of drug therapies, and social isolation of multimorbid patients due to reduced autonomy. A strategy to address these emerging challenges could involve the personalization of therapies based on the clinical, molecular, and genetic characterization of multimorbid patients. Anticoagulation therapy is a feasible model to implement personalized medicine since it generally involves older multimorbid patients receiving multiple drugs. In this study, in patients with atrial fibrillation, the use of the new generation of anticoagulation therapy, i.e., direct oral anti-coagulants (DOACs), is based on a preliminary assessment of the molecular targets of DOACS and any possible drug–drug interactions. Then, the genetic polymorphism of enzymes metabolizing DOACs is studied. After DOAC prescription, its circulating levels are measured. Clinical data are being collected to assess whether this personalized approach improves the safety and efficacy profiles of anticoagulation therapy using DOACs, thereby reducing the costs of healthcare for ageing multimorbid patients

    Validation of a small-size pooling approach targeting hospital surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 infection

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    Recent studies describing the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in pools of 5 to 32 samples reported false negative rates up to 10% for large groups, suggesting that smaller sample pools are a good compromise to increase sample processing capacity while maintaining test reliability. Since 5-sample pools were shown to efficiently detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in RT-PCR assays, we chose to test and validate this approach using a highthroughput RNA extraction and amplification platform

    Degradation rate of 5-fluorouracil in metastatic colorectal cancer. A new predictive outcome biomarker?

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    BACKGROUND: 5-FU based chemotherapy is the most common first line regimen used for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Identification of predictive markers of response to chemotherapy is a challenging approach for drug selection. The present study analyzes the predictive role of 5-FU degradation rate (5-FUDR) and genetic polymorphisms (MTHFR, TSER, DPYD) on survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic polymorphisms of MTHFR, TSER and DPYD, and the 5-FUDR of homogenous patients with mCRC were retrospectively studied. Genetic markers and the 5-FUDR were correlated with clinical outcome. RESULTS: 133 patients affected by mCRC, treated with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy from 2009 to 2014, were evaluated. Patients were classified into three metabolic classes, according to normal distribution of 5-FUDR in more than 1000 patients, as previously published: poor-metabolizer (PM) with 5-FU-DR ≤ 0,85 ng/ml/106 cells/min (8 pts); normal metabolizer with 0,85 < 5-FU-DR < 2,2 ng/ml/106 cells/min (119 pts); ultra-rapid metabolizer (UM) with 5-FU-DR ≥ 2,2 ng/ml/106 cells/min (6 pts). PM and UM groups showed a longer PFS respect to normal metabolizer group (14.5 and 11 months respectively vs 8 months; p = 0.029). A higher G3-4 toxicity rate was observed in PM and UM, respect to normal metabolizer (50% in both PM and UM vs 18%; p = 0.019). No significant associations between genes polymorphisms and outcomes or toxicities were observed. CONCLUSION: 5-FUDR seems to be significantly involved in predicting survival of patients who underwent 5-FU based CHT for mCRC. Although our findings require confirmation in large prospective studies, they reinforce the concept that individual genetic variation may allow personalized selection of chemotherapy to optimize clinical outcomes

    The omics in migraine

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    The term omics consist of three main areas of molecular biology, such as genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. The omics synergism recognise migraine as an ideal study model, due to its multifactorial nature. In this review, the plainly research data featuring in this complex network are reported and analyzed, as single or multiple factor in pathophysiology of migraine. The future of migraine biomolecular research shall be focused on networking among these different and hierarchical disciplines. We have to look for its Ariadne's tread, in order to see the whole painting of migraine molecular biology

    Predicting Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Related 5-Fluorouracil Toxicity. Opportunities and Challenges of DPYD Exon Sequencing and the Role of Phenotyping Assays

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    Deficiency of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), encoded by the DPYD gene, is associated with severe toxicity induced by the anti-cancer drug 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). DPYD genotyping of four recommended polymorphisms is widely used to predict toxicity, yet their prediction power is limited. Increasing availability of next generation sequencing (NGS) will allow us to screen rare variants, predicting a larger fraction of DPD deficiencies. Genotype−phenotype correlations were investigated by performing DPYD exon sequencing in 94 patients assessed for DPD deficiency by the 5-FU degradation rate (5-FUDR) assay. Association of common variants with 5-FUDR was analyzed with the SNPStats software. Functional interpretation of rare variants was performed by in-silico analysis (using the HSF system and PredictSNP) and literature review. A total of 23 rare variants and 8 common variants were detected. Among common variants, a significant association was found between homozygosity for the rs72728438 (c.1974+75A&gt;G) and decreased 5-FUDR. Haplotype analysis did not detect significant associations with 5-FUDR. Overall, in our sample cohort, NGS exon sequencing allowed us to explain 42.5% of the total DPD deficiencies. NGS sharply improves prediction of DPD deficiencies, yet a broader collection of genotype−phenotype association data is needed to enable the clinical use of sequencing data

    Fatigue in Patients on Chronic Hemodialysis: The Role of Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO) Activity, Interleukin-6, and Muscularity

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    Fatigue is a frequent symptom in hemodialysis (HD), and the indolamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) metabolic trap has been hypothesized in the pathogenesis of fatigue. The association between IDO activity according to fatigue and its relationship with muscle mass and function in HD patients was verified. Chronic HD patients were considered, and fatigue was assessed. The plasma kynurenines and tryptophan ratio (Kyn/Trp), as surrogate of IDO activity, and interleukin (IL)-6 were measured. Muscularity was assessed by BIA and muscle strength by hand-grip dynamometer. 50 HD patients were enrolled, and fatigue was present in 24% of the cohort. Patients with fatigue showed higher Kyn/Trp (p = 0.005), were older (p = 0.007), and IL-6 levels resulted higher than in non-fatigue patients (p &lt; 0.001). HD patients with fatigue showed lower intracellular water (surrogate of muscle mass) (p &lt; 0.001), as well as lower hand grip strength (p = 0.02). The Kyn/Trp ratio positively correlated with IL-6 and ECW/ICW (p = 0.004 and p = 0.014). By logistic regression analysis, higher ICW/h(2) was associated with lower odds of fatigue (OR, 0.10; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.73). In conclusion, our cohort fatigue was associated with a higher Kyn/Trp ratio, indicating a modulation of IDO activity. The Kyn/Trp ratio correlated with IL-6, suggesting a potential role of IDO and inflammation in inducing fatigue and changes in muscularity

    Use of benzylglycinamide by a HIV-seropositive polysubstance user: : the changing pattern of novel psychoactive substance use among youths

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    This document is the Accepted Manuscript of the following article: Matteo Caloro, et al, ‘Use of benzylglycinamide by a HIV-seropositive polysubstance user: The changing pattern of novel psychoactive substance use among youths’, Addictive Behaviors, Vol. 60, pp. 53-57, September 2016. The Version of Record is available online at doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2016.03.032. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.A 24-year old woman with multisubstance use since the age of 13, including opioids and cocaine, and long-standing HIV/HCV seropositivity status, presented with psychosis, agitation, and insomnia at the emergency department of a university hospital. She had been abusive and physically aggressive frequently without specific reasons and was involved in criminal legal cases. She was hospitalized twice. During her first hospital stay she experienced a brief episode of detachment from her environment, similar to episodes reportedly suffered at home. Psychosis had developed following heavy polysubstance abuse. Her mother provided sachets containing benzylglycinamide, a substance with no known psychotropic effects, which were also present in the patient's urine. She was occasionally positive for cannabinoids. She used to buy various novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) from the internet and used experimentally various substances freely made available to her by drug suppliers/dealers. She was unable to explain clearly why she was taking any of the identified NPS. She stated she was taking benzylglycinamide to calm her when smoking synthetic cannabinoids. While it appears that benzylglycinamide is not likely to constitute a novel drug of abuse, her polysubstance use exemplifies trends in NPS use patterns among the youths in the Western world and should alert mental health workers as to the possible dangers of such behavior and its reflection on social behavior and psychopathology.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio
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