19 research outputs found

    Käsityönopettajaopiskelijoiden käyttäjäkokemus vaatteen peruskaavan piirtämisestä : Tarkastelussa avoimen lähdekoodin kaavoitus- ja mittataulukko-ohjelmisto Seamly

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    Kandidaatintutkielmassa tutkimme käsityönopettajaopiskelijoiden kokemuksia vaatteen peruskaavan piirtämisestä käyttäen avoimen lähdekoodin Seamly- ohjelmistoa. Vaatteen peruskaavan piirtämistä ei Turun yliopiston käsityönopettajan opinnoissa opeteta. Tutkielmamme pyrkii tuomaan esille aiheen merkitystä ja esimerkkejä kaavan piirron mahdollisista toteutustavoista. Tarkastelemme aihetta käytettävyystutkimuksen näkökulmasta. Käytettävyyden kautta tutkimme peruskaavan piirtämisen kokemuksia opiskelijoiden keskuudessa. Tutkimukseen haettiin opiskelijoita Turun yliopiston käsityön aineenopettajan koulutukseen osallistuvista. Tutkimukseen osallistui viisi opiskelijaa. Tutkimus sisältää teoreettisen osuuden kaavoituksen tutkimuksesta ja sen käytöstä opettamisen ja oppimisen kentillä. Käsittelemme myös käytettävyystutkimuksen teoriaa ja sen käyttöä kasvatustieteissä. Käytettävyystutkimus perustuu kullekin tutkimukselle asetetuille käytettävyyskriteereille, joten määrittelimme myös käytettävyystutkimuksen teorioihin nojaten omaan viitekehykseemme sopivat kriteerit. Kriteerimme olivat opittavuus, tehokkuus, miellyttävyys ja merkityksellisyys ja näiden perusteella tarkistelimme työpajaosallistujien kokemusta. Tutkittava aineisto hankittiin tutkimusta varten pidetyissä peruskaavanpiirto työpajoissa. Osallistujien ennakko-odotuksia kartoitettiin alkukyselyllä ennen ensimmäistä työpajaa. Toisen työpajan jälkeen suoritetussa loppukyselyssä kerättiin tietoa itse työpajakokemuksesta ja sen vastaavuudesta odotuksiin. Lisäksi työpajoista tallennettiin audiovisuaalista aineistoa ja havaintomuistiinpanoja kyselyaineiston analyysin tueksi. Aineiston perusteella vertasimme odotusten ja kokemusten vastaavuutta ja tulkitsimme siihen vaikuttaneita tekijöitä. Johtopäätöksinä tutkimuksesta saimme luotua kokemuksen etenemistä esittävän mallin, josta tuli ilmi kokemuksen muutoksia ja tietoa työpaja toiminnan käytettävyydestä. Työpajan aikana opiskelijoiden tunteet aiheen merkityksellisyydestä, miellyttävyydestä ja tehokkuudesta kasvoivat. Osallistujat ilmaisivat kiinnostuksensa käyttää tietokoneohjelmaa tulevaisuudessa. Pohdintaosuudessa tuomme esille ajatuksia peruskaavan piirtämisen käytöstä opetuksen kontekstissa

    Mental Imagery in Early Psychosis

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    Dysfunction in mental imagery may contribute to the development of mental disorders. We studied the vividness and controllability of mental imagery in a sample of 42 individuals with recent-onset psychosis, using a cross sectional design. Contrary to earlier studies, the claim that mental imagery is enhanced and the controllability weak in psychotic disorder was not supported. Especially the negative and affective symptoms associated with low vividness, and the stronger the symptoms the patients had, the less vivid was their imagery. Anxiety and self-neglect were the best predictors of low vividness. Only an elevated mood associated with higher vividness. The cognitive performance of the participants did not associate significantly with imagery. Surprisingly, organic modality was reported to be the most vivid modality, whereas visual imagery was the least vivid. Understanding the role of mental imagery in early psychosis may help us to understand and treat these disorders better.Peer reviewe

    Association of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes with intestinal-type gastric cancer molecular subtypes and outcome

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    While host immune response is likely to be important for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients, detailed information on the T lymphocyte infiltration in different gastric cancer subtypes is lacking. Here, we studied the presence of CD3, CD8, and FOXP3 (Forkhead box p3) expressing T lymphocytes in a retrospective cohort of 190 intestinal gastric and gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. The cancers represented four distinct molecular subtypes: Epstein-Barr virus‚Äďpositive (EBV+), mismatch-repair-deficient (MMR-D), aberrant TP53, and the ‚Äúother‚ÄĚ subtype. The absolute numbers of CD3+, CD8+, and FOXP3+ T lymphocytes were analyzed in relation with these molecular subtypes and selected clinicopathological parameters. Overall, there was a large variation in the amount of infiltrating T lymphocyte in all molecular subtypes. Among the subtypes, EBV+ cancers differed from the other subtypes in increased lymphocyte infiltration and high CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio. While the TP53 aberrant subtype did not differ in the absolute amount of T lymphocyte, the ratio of CD8+/FOXP3+ and CD3+/FOXP3+ cells was highest in this subtype, possibly reflecting immunosuppression associated with genomic instability. Increased CD3+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltrates were associated with better survival, and remained as independent prognostic factors in a multivariate analysis. This study is the first to investigate lymphocytic infiltration within four molecular subtypes of intestinal-type gastric cancer in a European cohort. The results provide an important addition to the current knowledge of T lymphocyte‚Äďdependent immune response in gastric cancer and its prognostic significance.Peer reviewe

    FHOD1 and FMNL1 formin proteins in intestinal gastric cancer: correlation with tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes and molecular subtypes

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    Background Gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common cause of cancer death. Intestinal type GC is a molecularly diverse disease. Formins control cytoskeletal processes and have been implicated in the progression of many cancers. Their clinical significance in GC remains unclear. Here, we characterize the expression of formin proteins FHOD1 and FMNL1 in intestinal GC tissue samples and investigate their association with clinical parameters, GC molecular subtypes and intratumoral T lymphocytes. Methods The prognostic significance of FHOD1 and FMNL1 mRNA expression was studied with Kaplan-Meier analyses in an online database. The expression of FHOD1 and FMNL1 proteins was characterized in GC cells, and in non-neoplastic and malignant tissues utilizing tumor microarrays of intestinal GC representing different molecular subtypes. FHOD1 and FMNL1 expression was correlated with clinical parameters, molecular features and T lymphocyte infiltration. Immunohistochemical expression of neither formin correlated with survival. Results Kaplan-Meier analysis associated high FHOD1 and FMNL1 mRNA expression with reduced overall survival (OS). Characterization of FHOD1 and FMNL1 in GC cells showed cytoplasmic expression along the actin filaments. Similar pattern was recapitulated in GC tissue samples. Elevated FMNL1 was associated with larger tumor size and higher disease stage. Downregulation of FHOD1 associated with TP53-mutated GC tumors. Tumor cell FHOD1 expression strongly correlated with high numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD8 + lymphocytes. Conclusions FHOD1 and FMNL1 proteins are expressed in the tumor cells of intestinal GC and significantly associate with clinical parameters without direct prognostic significance. FHOD1 correlates with high intratumoral CD8 + T lymphocyte infiltration in this cohort.Peer reviewe

    Association of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes with intestinal-type gastric cancer molecular subtypes and outcome

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    While host immune response is likely to be important for the prognosis of gastric cancer patients, detailed information on the T lymphocyte infiltration in different gastric cancer subtypes is lacking. Here, we studied the presence of CD3, CD8, and FOXP3 (Forkhead box p3) expressing T lymphocytes in a retrospective cohort of 190 intestinal gastric and gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas. The cancers represented four distinct molecular subtypes: Epstein-Barr virus-positive (EBV+), mismatch-repair-deficient (MMR-D), aberrant TP53, and the "other" subtype. The absolute numbers of CD3+, CD8+, and FOXP3+ T lymphocytes were analyzed in relation with these molecular subtypes and selected clinicopathological parameters. Overall, there was a large variation in the amount of infiltrating T lymphocyte in all molecular subtypes. Among the subtypes, EBV+ cancers differed from the other subtypes in increased lymphocyte infiltration and high CD8+/FOXP3+ ratio. While the TP53 aberrant subtype did not differ in the absolute amount of T lymphocyte, the ratio of CD8+/FOXP3+ and CD3+/FOXP3+ cells was highest in this subtype, possibly reflecting immunosuppression associated with genomic instability. Increased CD3+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltrates were associated with better survival, and remained as independent prognostic factors in a multivariate analysis. This study is the first to investigate lymphocytic infiltration within four molecular subtypes of intestinal-type gastric cancer in a European cohort. The results provide an important addition to the current knowledge of T lymphocyte-dependent immune response in gastric cancer and its prognostic significance

    FHOD1 and FMNL1 formin proteins in intestinal gastric cancer: correlation with tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes and molecular subtypes

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    BackgroundGastric cancer (GC) is the third most common cause of cancer death. Intestinal type GC is a molecularly diverse disease. Formins control cytoskeletal processes and have been implicated in the progression of many cancers. Their clinical significance in GC remains unclear. Here, we characterize the expression of formin proteins FHOD1 and FMNL1 in intestinal GC tissue samples and investigate their association with clinical parameters, GC molecular subtypes and intratumoral T lymphocytes.MethodsThe prognostic significance of FHOD1 and FMNL1 mRNA expression was studied with Kaplan-Meier analyses in an online database. The expression of FHOD1 and FMNL1 proteins was characterized in GC cells, and in non-neoplastic and malignant tissues utilizing tumor microarrays of intestinal GC representing different molecular subtypes. FHOD1 and FMNL1 expression was correlated with clinical parameters, molecular features and T lymphocyte infiltration. Immunohistochemical expression of neither formin correlated with survival.ResultsKaplan-Meier analysis associated high FHOD1 and FMNL1 mRNA expression with reduced overall survival (OS). Characterization of FHOD1 and FMNL1 in GC cells showed cytoplasmic expression along the actin filaments. Similar pattern was recapitulated in GC tissue samples. Elevated FMNL1 was associated with larger tumor size and higher disease stage. Downregulation of FHOD1 associated with TP53-mutated GC tumors. Tumor cell FHOD1 expression strongly correlated with high numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD8 + lymphocytes.ConclusionsFHOD1 and FMNL1 proteins are expressed in the tumor cells of intestinal GC and significantly associate with clinical parameters without direct prognostic significance. FHOD1 correlates with high intratumoral CD8 + T lymphocyte infiltration in this cohort.</p

    EGFR gene copy number decreases during anti-EGFR antibody therapy in colorectal cancer

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    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) increase is associated with a favorable anti-EGFR antibody treatment response in RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. However, there are limited and comparative data regarding the EGFR GCN in primary colorectal cancer tumors and corresponding metastases or the effect of anti-EGFR antibody treatment on EGFR GCN in recurrent disease. In addition, little is known about the potential EGFR GCN changes during anti-EGFR therapy in comparison with other treatment regimens. EGFR GCN was analyzed by EGFR immunohistochemistry-guided silver in situ hybridization in primary and corresponding recurrent local or metastatic tumors from 80 colorectal cancer patients. GCN levels were compared between KRAS wild-type patients having received anti-EGFR therapy and patients having received other forms of treatment after primary surgery. The EGFR GCN decrease between primary and recurrent tumors was more pronounced among the anti‚ÄďEGFR-treated patients than among patients not treated with anti-EGFR therapy (P = .047). None of the patients experiencing an EGFR GCN increase of at least 1.0 between the primary and recurrent tumors were treated with anti-EGFR antibodies. When including only patients with distant metastases, an EGFR GCN decrease of at least 1.0 was more common among the anti‚ÄďEGFR-treated patients than among patients not treated with anti-EGFR therapy (P = .028). Our results suggest that anti-EGFR antibody treatment is associated with EGFR GCN decrease between the primary and recurrent colorectal adenocarcinomas, whereas no GCN change is observed among patients receiving other forms of treatment after primary surgery.</p

    Marketing channels used by small farmers

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    This thesis project examines the marketing channels used by small farmers in the Uusimaa region and was commissioned by the Finnish Central Union of Agricultural Producers and Forest owners. The objective of the thesis is to determine the benefits and disadvantages of different marketing channels from the perspective of small farmers and to understand why they use the channels that they use. In the study the three most commonly used marketing channels are compared: selling online, selling in farmers’ markets and events, and retail selling. The theoretical background is based on the 4Cs of marketing and on the theory of marketing channels. The 4Cs (consumer wants and needs, consumer cost, consumer convenience and consumer communication) are explained as well as the linkage between consumer convenience and the marketing channel, as the marketing channel is supposed to ensure that the product is available for the consumers in the place they prefer. This section explains marketing channel as a term, and its most important functions and features, such as channel length, selectivity of the channel, and how each channel member should bring some extra value to the product. To investigate the farmers’ view on these channels a survey was emailed to the members of MTK Uusimaa. The survey received less answers than anticipated, so the results are not reliable. The results have, however, informational value and they indicate that the number of channel members in the marketing channel has a negative effect on the cost-efficiency and control the farmers have, but also a positive effect on the customer relations. Because direct selling via the Internet leaves the farmers with the largest profit, most farmers consider this to be a good marketing channel. However, the farmers find it difficult to create new customer relations via Internet, so they could utilize more the resources and contacts offered by additional channel members, or take some courses on for example social media marketing.Tämä opinnäytetyö käsittelee pienten maatalousyrittäjien markkinointikanavia Uudellamaalla. Sen on tilannut Maa- ja Metsätaloustuottajain Keskusliitto MTK. Sen päämääränä on selvittää eri markkinointikanavien hyviä ja huonoja puolia pienten maatalousyrittäjien näkökulmasta, sekä ymmärtää, miksi pienet maataloustuottajat käyttävät niitä markkinointikanavia, joita he käyttävät. Kyselyssä vertaillaan kolmea yleisimmin käytettyä markkinointikanavaa: internetmyyntiä, tori- ja tapahtumamyyntiä, sekä vähittäismyyntiä. Teoreettinen tausta koostuu markkinoinnin neljästä C:stä ja markkinointikanavien teoriasta. Markkinoinnin neljä C:tä selitetään sekä kuluttajien mukavuuden yhteys markkinointikanaviin, sillä markkinointikanavan tehtävänä on varmistaa, että tuote on kuluttajan saatavilla siellä, mistä kuluttaja sen haluaa ostaa. Markkinointikanava selitetään, ja sen tärkeimmät tehtävät ja ominaisuudet, kuten markkinointikanavan pituus ja valikoituvuus, sekä miten jokaisen kanavan jäsenen tulisi tuoda tuotteeseen lisäarvoa, selitetään. Jotta pienten maatalousyrittäjien mielipide eri markkinointikanavista saatiin tutkittua, lähetettiin MTK-Uusimaan jäsenille sähköpostitse kysely. Opinnäytetyön kyselyyn tuli vastauksia odotettua vähemmän, joten lopputulokset eivät ole luotettavia. Ne sisältävät kuitenkin informaatiota. Markkinointikanavan jäsenten määrä vaikuttaa negatiivisesti pienten maataloustuottajien kustannustehokkuuteen ja vaikutusvaltaan, mutta positiivisesti asiakassuhteiden hallintaan. Koska Internetissä tapahtuvasta suoramyynnistä jää tuottajille eniten voittoa, useat pienet maatalousyrittäjät pitävät sitä hyvänä markkinointikanavana. Uusien asiakassuhteiden luominen koetaan kuitenkin vaikeaksi, joten pienet maatalousyrittäjät voisivat joko hyödyntää enemmän markkinointikanavien jäsenten resursseja ja kontakteja, tai käydä kursseilla, joissa opetetaan esimerkiksi markkinointia sosiaalisessa mediass

    EGFR gene copy number decreases during anti-EGFR antibody therapy in colorectal cancer

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    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number (GCN) increase is associated with a favorable anti-EGFR antibody treatment response in RAS wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. However, there are limited and comparative data regarding the EGFR GCN in primary colorectal cancer tumors and corresponding metastases or the effect of anti-EGFR antibody treatment on EGFR GCN in recurrent disease. In addition, little is known about the potential EGFR GCN changes during anti-EGFR therapy in comparison with other treatment regimens. EGFR GCN was analyzed by EGFR immunohistochemistry-guided silver in situ hybridization in primary and corresponding recurrent local or metastatic tumors from 80 colorectal cancer patients. GCN levels were compared between KRAS wild-type patients having received antiEGFR therapy and patients having received other forms of treatment after primary surgery. The EGFR GCN decrease between primary and recurrent tumors was more pronounced among the anti EGFR-treated patients than among patients not treated with anti-EGFR therapy (P=.047). None of the patients experiencing an EGFR GCN increase of at least 1.0 between the primary and recurrent tumors were treated with antiEGFR antibodies. When including only patients with distant metastases, an EGFR GCN decrease of at least 1.0 was more common among the anti EGFR-treated patients than among patients not treated with anti-EGFR therapy (P=.028). Our results suggest that anti-EGFR antibody treatment is associated with EGFR GCN decrease between the primary and recurrent colorectal adenocarcinomas, whereas no GCN change is observed among patients receiving other forms of treatment after primary surgery. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.Peer reviewe
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