561 research outputs found

    Machine learning active-nematic hydrodynamics

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    Hydrodynamic theories effectively describe many-body systems out of equilibrium in terms of a few macroscopic parameters. However, such hydrodynamic parameters are difficult to derive from microscopics. Seldom is this challenge more apparent than in active matter where the energy cascade mechanisms responsible for autonomous large-scale dynamics are poorly understood. Here, we use active nematics to demonstrate that neural networks can extract the spatio-temporal variation of hydrodynamic parameters directly from experiments. Our algorithms analyze microtubule-kinesin and actin-myosin experiments as computer vision problems. Unlike existing methods, neural networks can determine how multiple parameters such as activity and elastic constants vary with ATP and motor concentration. In addition, we can forecast the evolution of these chaotic many-body systems solely from image-sequences of their past by combining autoencoder and recurrent networks with residual architecture. Our study paves the way for artificial-intelligence characterization and control of coupled chaotic fields in diverse physical and biological systems even when no knowledge of the underlying dynamics exists.Comment: SI Movie 1: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9WzIT7OG9pY SI Movie 2: https://youtu.be/Trc4RyU7-dw SI Movie 3: https://youtu.be/Epm_P_EakH

    Radiation-associated sarcoma of the skull base after irradiation for pituitary adenoma

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    Secondary, radiation-induced neoplasms represent a significant long-term risk after radiation treatment, and radiation-induced sarcomas (RAS) have an especially poor prognosis. These have rarely been reported after irradiation for pituitary adenomas
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