673 research outputs found

    Elderly Households and Housing Wealth: Do They Use It or Lose It?

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    Over 80 percent of households in their 50s are homeowners and housing wealth accounts for over half of total household wealth for most of these homeowners. The evidence in the literature on whether the elderly are consuming their housing wealth has been mixed. Because home sales are infrequent and a high proportion of the elderly continue to own in old age, it appears that the elderly are not consuming housing wealth. There are, however, indications that housing wealth may be a form of self-insurance and that housing wealth is consumed, albeit at very old ages. To date, however, the evidence to support that hypothesis has been weak. This paper examines whether predictors of housing sales are consistent with the insurance story by looking at the extent to which indicators of changes in economic status and access to alternate insurance explain housing sales. The paper also examines the extent to which changes in health status predict housing sales. The results of the probit appear to indicate that, by and large, housing sales in old age for single households is mostly driven by worsening health. Widowhood has a large effect on increasing the probability of selling the house and the effect is larger if the husband is the surviving spouse. There are indications that poor married homeowners are consuming housing wealth and also indications that married households are responding to Medicaid tax incentives. This evidence seems to suggest that, at least among married households, housing decisions are financially motivated; however, the evidence does not by itself validate the insurance story.

    Econometric flexibility in microsimulation: an age-centred regression approach

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    This paper describes a strategy for estimating predictive equations that has been shown to work well in microsimulation modelling. The technique, referred to here as ?age-centred regression,? is particularly useful when the available data set for estimating a model equation is limited and the marginal effect of one or more explanatory variables might be expected to vary systematically by age. The examples used here to describe how age-centring works are taken from the labour supply equations in the Congressional Budget Office Long-Term (CBOLT) dynamic microsimulation model. By switching from a traditional single-equation approach to age-centred regression, we show that marginal effects of independent variables can vary significantly across age groups. The comparison also reveals that improvements in mean predictions by age can be achieved with little if any loss in statistical precision of coefficient estimates.age-centred regression; heterogeneity; spline; kernel

    The Responsiveness of Private Savings to Medicaid Long Term Care Policies

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    This paper examines the extent to which private savings responds to the availability of a social insurance program. We focus on the Medicaid nursing home assistance program and uses variation in state Medicaid policies in the 1960s and 1990s to identify whether household wealth correlates negatively with access to public insurance coverage. We use data from the 1962 and 1970 Survey of Consumer Finances and the 1992 through 2002 Health and Retirement Study. We find that household savings in 1970 was substantially lower in states with easier access to Medicaid assistance and that household savings in the 1990s was lower when access to the Medicaid program was lower.

    Behavioral Biases in Annuity Choice: An Experiment

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    We conduct a neutral-context laboratory experiment to systematically investigate the role of the hit-by-bus concern in explaining the annuitization puzzle: the low rate of retirement-asset annuitization relative to the predictions of standard models. We vary endowed asset (annuity vs. stock of wealth vs. no explicit endowment), and find a strong endowment effect. Furthermore, we find that the ordering of survival risks matters. Compared to a frame in which a single draw from a known distribution determines survival outcome, annuity choice is lower when subjects must sequentially survive early periods to reach periods in which the annuity dominates. We conclude with policy implications.experimental economics, behavioral, retirement, annuities

    An evidence-based case for quality online initial teacher education

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    The rapid expansion of fully online delivery of initial teacher education (ITE) seen in the past decade has generated some concerns about impact on teacher quality. This is set within broader, sustained concerns about ITE generally. Much of the criticism of online ITE has been made without sufficient evidence to support the claims, largely due to the still-nascent evidence base. The data presented here contributes to that evidence base by providing demographic and academic achievement insights for cohorts of graduate teachers (N = 2008) across the years 2012 to 2018 who have engaged in fully online ITE at an Australian university. The literature has recognised the traditional barriers to accessing higher education for many of these students, including women, the mature-aged, and those with family and work responsibilities. Performance data for online ITE students within their programs demonstrates that they are breaking through these barriers associated with the digital divide. Analysis of who these people are, where they come from, and how they are performing provides valuable insights into online ITE, at a time when the value of broadening access to education and digital equity are being widely acknowledged. Implications for practice or policy:•The educational community should consider the achievement of online ITE students and contributions they can make to education and schools.•The educational community should consider the contributions online ITE can make to broadening access to higher education and digital equity

    Reducing Teen Childbearing Among Latinos: An Innovative Anti-Poverty Strategy

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    Having kids during the teen years raises the risk of poverty. Latinos in the United States are particularly vulnerable in this regard. They experience high rates of poverty and—not coincidently—they experience relatively high rates of teen childbearing, despite recent declines. We know from research that delaying childbearing can reduce the risk of poverty, especially when delays are accompanied by increased educational attainment. Accordingly, to reduce poverty among Latinos, it seems vital to reduce teen childbearing. This important insight underscores the need to expand the number of effective teen pregnancy prevention programs designed specifically for Latinos. To address this need, an interdisciplinary team of social scientists at Child Trends used multiple research methods to identify promising approaches to reduce early childbearing among Latino adolescents. This work included a review of research studies, a scan of intervention programs, focus groups with adolescents, interviews with parents and with program designers and program staff, as well as analyses of national databases. In this issue brief, we synthesize the results across these various research methods to identify major findings and implications for teen pregnancy prevention efforts for Latinos

    The Responsiveness of Private Savings to Medicaid Long Term Care Policies

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    This paper examines the extent to which private savings responds to the availability of a social insurance program. We focus on the Medicaid nursing home assistance program and uses variation in state Medicaid policies in the 1960s and 1990s to identify whether household wealth correlates negatively with access to public insurance coverage. We use data from the 1962 and 1970 Survey of Consumer Finances and the 1992 through 2002 Health and Retirement Study. We find that household savings in 1970 was substantially lower in states with easier access to Medicaid assistance and that household savings in the 1990s was lower when access to the Medicaid program was lower.Social Security Administrationhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/49371/1/wp150.pd

    U-series Disequilibria in Guatemalan Lavas, Crustal Contamination, and Implications for Magma Genesis Along the Central American Subduction Zone

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    New U-series results indicate that Guatemalan volcanic rocks display both 238U and 230Th excesses. 230Th excess is restricted to volcanoes in central Guatemala, both along and behind the front. 230Th excess correlates with a number of incompatible element ratios, such as Th/Nb and Ba/Th. It also shows a negative correlation with MgO. Guatemalan volcanic rocks have (230Th/232Th) ratios that overlap those of Costa Rican volcanics and are therefore considerably lower than the unusually high ratios characterizing volcanic rocks from Nicaragua. Along-arc variations in (230Th/232Th) therefore mirror those of a number of diagnostic geochemical parameters, such as Ba/La, which are symmetrical about a peak in west central Nicaragua. The one siliceous lava analyzed, from the Cerro Quemado dome complex, has a recognizable crustal imprint, distinguished, for instance, by high Th/Nb and low Ba/Th. In mafic samples, 238U excess is attributed to addition of a U-enriched fluid component from the subducting Cocos plate. Our preferred explanation for 230Th excess in Guatemalan mafic samples, on the other hand, is crustal contamination, consistent with the relatively high Th/Nb and low Ba/Th ratios in these samples. We suspect, however, that crustal contamination only exerts a sizable control over the U-series disequilibrium of mafic magmas in Guatemala, and not elsewhere along the Central American volcanic front. This agrees with previously published trace element and isotopic evidence that throughout Central America, with the exception of Guatemala, mafic magmas are largely uncontaminated by crustal material.The work was supported by NSF grant OCE-0405666

    Cerebral biomarkers in neurological complications of preeclampsia

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    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are no tools to accurately predict who is at risk of developing neurological complications of preeclampsia and no objective methods to determine disease severity. We assessed whether plasma levels of the cerebral biomarkers neurofilament light (NfL), tau and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) could reflect disease severity in various phenotypes of preeclampsia and compared them to the angiogenic biomarkers soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), and soluble endoglin (sEng) . STUDY DESIGN: In this observational study, we included women from the South African PROVE biobank. Plasma samples taken at diagnosis (preeclampsia cases) or at admission for delivery (normotensive controls) were analyzed for concentrations of NfL, tau, GFAP, PlGF, sFlt-1 and sEng. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of inflammatory markers and albumin were analyzed in a subgroup of 15 women. Analyses were adjusted for gestational age, time from seizures and delivery to sampling, maternal age and parity. RESULTS: Compared to 28 normotensive pregnancies, 146 women with preeclampsia demonstrated 2.18-fold higher plasma concentrations of NfL (95% CI 1.64-2.88), 2.17-fold higher tau (1.49-3.16) and 2.77-fold higher GFAP (2.06-3.72). In total 72 women with neurological complications (eclampsia, cortical blindness and stroke) demonstrated increased plasma concentrations of tau (2.99-fold higher, 95% CI 1.92-4.65) and GFAP (3.22-fold higher, 95% CI 2.06-5.02) compared to women with preeclampsia without pulmonary edema, HELLP or neurological complications (n=31). Angiogenic markers were also higher but to a lesser extent. Women with hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome (n=20) demonstrated increased plasma concentrations of NfL (1.64-fold higher, 95% CI 1.06-2.55), tau (4.44-fold higher, 95% CI 1.85-10.66) and GFAP (1.82-fold higher, 95% CI 1.32-2.50) compared to women with preeclampsia without pulmonary edema, HELLP or neurological complications . No difference was shown in angiogenic biomarkers. There was no difference between 23 women with preeclampsia complicated by pulmonary edema and women with preeclampsia without pulmonary edema, HELLP or neurological complications for any of the biomarkers. Plasma concentrations of tau and GFAP were increased in women with several neurological complications vs eclampsia only. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma NfL, GFAP and tau are candidate biomarkers for diagnosis and possibly prediction of cerebral complications of preeclampsia

    DNA Product Formation in Female Sprague–Dawley Rats Following Polyhalogenated Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PHAH) Exposure

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    DNA oxidation damage has been regarded as one of the possible mechanisms for the hepatic carcinogenesis of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs). In this study, we evaluated the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) from the standpoint of induced DNA oxidation products and their relationship to toxicity and carcinogenicity. Nine DNA oxidation products were analyzed in the liver of female Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin (TCDD) alone or the tertiary mixture of TCDD, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126), and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF) by gavage for 14, 31, and 53 weeks (5 days/week) by LC-MS/MS: 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dGuo); 1,N6-etheno-2'-deoxyadenosine (1,N6-εdAdo); N2,3-ethenoguanine (N2,3-εG); 7-(2-oxoethly)guanine (7-OEG); 1,N2-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N2-εdGuo); malondialdehyde (M1dGuo); acrolein (AcrdGuo); crotonaldehyde (CrdGuo); and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNEdGuo) derived 2'-deoxyguanosine adducts. Exposure to TCDD (100 ng/kg/day) significantly induced 1,N6-εdAdo at 31 and 53 weeks, while no increase of 8-oxo-dGuo was observed. Significant increases were observed for 8-oxo-dGuo and 1,N6-εdAdo at all time points following exposure to the tertiary mixture (TEQ 100 ng/kg/day). Exposure to TCDD for 53 weeks only significantly increased 1,N6-εdAdo, while increases of N2,3-εG and 7-OEG were only found in the highest dose group (100 ng/kg/day). Exposure to the tertiary mixture for 53 weeks had no effect on N2,3-εG in any exposure group (TEQ 0, 22, 46, or 100 ng/kg/day), while significant increases were observed for 1,N6-εdAdo (all dose groups), 8-oxo-dGuo (46 and 100 ng/kg/day), and 7-OEG (100 ng/kg/day). While no significant increase was observed at 53 weeks for 1,N2-εdGuo, M1dGuo, AcrdGuo, or CrdGuo following exposure to TCDD (100 ng/kg/day), all of them were significantly induced in animals exposed to the tertiary mixture (TEQ 100 ng/kg/day). This oxidation DNA product data suggest that the simple TEF methodology cannot be applied to evaluate the diverse patterns of toxic effects induced by DLCs
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