1,273 research outputs found

    Cryopreservation of Human Adipose Tissues and Adipose-Derived Stem Cells with DMSO and/or Trehalose: A Systematic Review.

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    Adipose tissue senescence is implicated as a major player in obesity- and ageing-related disorders. There is a growing body of research studying relevant mechanisms in age-related diseases, as well as the use of adipose-derived stem cells in regenerative medicine. The cell banking of tissue by utilising cryopreservation would allow for much greater flexibility of use. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the most commonly used cryopreservative agent but is toxic to cells. Trehalose is a sugar synthesised by lower organisms to withstand extreme cold and drought that has been trialled as a cryopreservative agent. To examine the efficacy of trehalose in the cryopreservation of human adipose tissue, we conducted a systematic review of studies that used trehalose for the cryopreservation of human adipose tissues and adipose-derived stem cells. Thirteen articles, including fourteen studies, were included in the final review. All seven studies that examined DMSO and trehalose showed that they could be combined effectively to cryopreserve adipocytes. Although studies that compared nonpermeable trehalose with DMSO found trehalose to be inferior, studies that devised methods to deliver nonpermeable trehalose into the cell found it comparable to DMSO. Trehalose is only comparable to DMSO when methods are devised to introduce it into the cell. There is some evidence to support using trehalose instead of using no cryopreservative agent

    A Multichannel DNA SoC for Rapid Point-of-Care Gene Detection

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    Immediate Surgical Repositioning Following Intrusive Luxation: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    This report presents a case of severe intrusive luxation of mature maxillary lateral incisor in a 10-year-old boy. The intruded tooth was immediately repositioned (surgical extrusion) and splinted within 2 h following injury. Tetracycline therapy was initiated at the time of repositioning and maintained for 10 days. Pulp removal and calcium hydroxide treatment of the root canal was carried out after repositioning. Splint was removed 1 month later. Definitive root canal treatment with gutta percha was accomplished at the second month recall. Clinical and radiographic examination 28 months after the surgical extrusion revealed satisfactory apical and periodontal healing

    Brazilin Isolated from Caesalpinia sappan Suppresses Nuclear Envelope Reassembly by Inhibiting Barrier-to-Autointegration Factor Phosphorylation

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    To date, many anticancer drugs have been developed by directly or indirectly targeting microtubules, which are involved in cell division. Although this approach has yielded many anticancer drugs, these drugs produce undesirable side effects. An alternative strategy is needed, and targeting mitotic exit may be one alternative approach. Localization of phosphorylated barrier-to-autointegration factor (BAF) to the chromosomal core region is essential for nuclear envelope compartment relocalization. In this study, we isolated brazilin from Caesalpinia sappan Leguminosae and demonstrated that it inhibited BAF phosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we demonstrated direct binding between brazilin and BAF. The inhibition of BAF phosphorylation induced abnormal nuclear envelope reassembly and cell death, indicating that perturbation of nuclear envelope reassembly could be a novel approach to anticancer therapy. We propose that brazilin isolated from C. sappan may be a new anticancer drug candidate that induces cell death by inhibiting vaccinia-related kinase 1-mediated BAF phosphorylation.X1153Ysciescopu

    Valley Polarization Enhancement Induced by a Single Chiral Nanoparticle

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    Valley polarization is amongst the most critical attributes of atomically thin materials. However, achieving a high contrast from monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) has so far been challenging. In this work, a giant valley polarization contrast up to 45% from a monolayer WS2 has been achieved at room temperature by using a single chiral plasmonic nanoparticle. The increased contrast is attributed to the selective enhancement of both the excitation and the emission rate having one particular handedness of the circular polarization. The experimental results were corroborated by the optical simulation using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Additionally, the single chiral nanoparticle enabled the observation of valley-polarized luminescence with a linear excitation. Our results provide a promising pathway to enhance valley contrast from monolayer TMDs and utilize them for nanophotonic devices

    Direct Conversion of Mouse Fibroblasts into Cholangiocyte Progenitor Cells

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    Disorders of the biliary epithelium, known as cholangiopathies, cause severe and irreversible liver diseases. The limited accessibility of bile duct precludes modeling of several cholangiocyte-mediated diseases. Therefore, novel approaches for obtaining functional cholangiocytes with high purity are needed. Previous work has shown that the combination of Hnf1β and Foxa3 could directly convert mouse fibroblasts into bipotential hepatic stem cell-like cells, termed iHepSCs. However, the efficiency of converting fibroblasts into iHepSCs is low, and these iHepSCs exhibit extremely low differentiation potential into cholangiocytes, thus hindering the translation of iHepSCs to the clinic. Here, we describe that the expression of Hnf1α and Foxa3 dramatically facilitates the robust generation of iHepSCs. Notably, prolonged in vitro culture of Hnf1α- and Foxa3-derived iHepSCs induces a Notch signaling-mediated secondary conversion into cholangiocyte progenitor-like cells that display dramatically enhanced differentiation capacity into mature cholangiocytes. Our study provides a robust two-step approach for obtaining cholangiocyte progenitor-like cells using defined factors

    Ezrin interacts with the SARS coronavirus spike protein and restrains infection at the entry stage

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    © 2012 Millet et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.Background: Entry of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and its envelope fusion with host cell membrane are controlled by a series of complex molecular mechanisms, largely dependent on the viral envelope glycoprotein Spike (S). There are still many unknowns on the implication of cellular factors that regulate the entry process. Methodology/Principal Findings: We performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using as bait the carboxy-terminal endodomain of S, which faces the cytosol during and after opening of the fusion pore at early stages of the virus life cycle. Here we show that the ezrin membrane-actin linker interacts with S endodomain through the F1 lobe of its FERM domain and that both the eight carboxy-terminal amino-acids and a membrane-proximal cysteine cluster of S endodomain are important for this interaction in vitro. Interestingly, we found that ezrin is present at the site of entry of S-pseudotyped lentiviral particles in Vero E6 cells. Targeting ezrin function by small interfering RNA increased S-mediated entry of pseudotyped particles in epithelial cells. Furthermore, deletion of the eight carboxy-terminal amino acids of S enhanced S-pseudotyped particles infection. Expression of the ezrin dominant negative FERM domain enhanced cell susceptibility to infection by SARS-CoV and S pseudotyped particles and potentiated S-dependent membrane fusion. Conclusions/Significance: Ezrin interacts with SARS-CoV S endodomain and limits virus entry and fusion. Our data present a novel mechanism involving a cellular factor in the regulation of S-dependent early events of infection.This work was supported by the Research Grant Council of Hong Kong (RGC#760208)and the RESPARI project of the International Network of Pasteur Institutes