99 research outputs found

    Cardiovascular disease and depression: a narrative review

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    In clinical practice, it is frequently observed that cardiac and psychological disorders frequently co-occur, leading to the emergence of a field known as cardiovascular disease with depression. Depression, in particular, poses a remarkable risk for the evolution of cardiovascular disease and intimately relates to adverse cardiovascular outcomes and mortality. Moreover, individuals who are depressed exhibit a higher susceptibility to developing cardiovascular disease compared to those in good health. Patients diagnosed with cardiovascular disease with depression disease face a heightened risk of mortality within a 5-year timeframe, and their prognosis remains unsatisfactory even after receiving treatment targeting a single disorder, with a notable recurrence rate. Psychological interventions in conjunction with medications are commonly employed in clinical settings for treating patients with cardiovascular disease and depression diseases, albeit with limited effectiveness and unfavorable prognosis. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), such as Shuangxinfang, Chaihujialonggumuli, and Yixin Ningshen Tablet, etc., have been reported and have Therapeutic effects in patients with cardiovascular disease combined with depression. Despite numerous articles documenting a notable association between heart disease and depression, there exists a dearth of studies elucidating the precise pathogenesis and target of action for cardiovascular disease with depression diseases. This article endeavors to consolidate the epidemiological data, potential pathogenic mechanisms, and available treatment modalities for cardiovascular disease with depression diseases. Its primary objective is to unveil plausible co-morbid mechanisms and suitable treatment approaches, thereby offering novel insights for the prevention, diagnosis, and management of cardiovascular disease with depression diseases

    Evidence for L1-associated DNA rearrangements and negligible L1 retrotransposition in glioblastoma multiforme

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    Background: LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are a notable endogenous source of mutagenesis in mammals. Notably, cancer cells can support unusual L1 retrotransposition and L1-associated sequence rearrangement mechanisms following DNA damage. Recent reports suggest that L1 is mobile in epithelial tumours and neural cells but, paradoxically, not in brain cancers. Results: Here, using retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq), we surveyed L1 mutations in 14 tumours classified as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) or as a lower grade glioma. In four GBM tumours, we characterised one probable endonuclease-independent L1 insertion, two L1-associated rearrangements and one likely Alu-Alu recombination event adjacent to an L1. These mutations included PCR validated intronic events in MeCP2 and EGFR. Despite sequencing L1 integration sites at up to 250├Ś depth by RC-seq, we found no tumour-specific, endonuclease-dependent L1 insertions. Whole genome sequencing analysis of the tumours carrying the MeCP2 and EGFR L1 mutations also revealed no endonuclease-dependent L1 insertions. In a complementary in vitro assay, wild-type and endonuclease mutant L1 reporter constructs each mobilised very inefficiently in four cultured GBM cell lines. Conclusions: These experiments altogether highlight the consistent absence of canonical L1 retrotransposition in GBM tumours and cultured cell lines, as well as atypical L1-associated sequence rearrangements following DNA damage in vivo

    Clinical value of the systemic immune-inflammation index in moyamoya disease

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    BackgroundMoyamoya disease (MMD) is a rare cerebrovascular disorder with unknown etiology. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism of moyamoya disease remains to be elucidated, but recent studies have increasingly highlighted that abnormal immune response may be a potential trigger for MMD. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) are inflammatory markers that can reflect the immune-inflammation state of the disease.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate SII, NLR, and PLR in patients with moyamoya disease.MethodsA total of 154 patients with moyamoya disease (MMD group) and 321 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (control group) were included in this retrospective caseÔÇôcontrol study. Complete blood count parameters were assayed to calculate the SII, NLR, and PLR values.ResultsThe SII, NLR, and PLR values in the moyamoya disease group were significantly higher than those in the control group [754 ┬▒ 499 vs. 411 ┬▒ 205 (P < 0.001), 2.83 ┬▒ 1.98 vs. 1.81 ┬▒ 0.72 (P < 0.001), and 152 ┬▒ 64 vs. 120 ┬▒ 42 (P < 0.001), respectively]. The SII in the medium-moyamoya vessels of moyamoya disease was higher than that in the high-moyamoya vessels and low-moyamoya vessels (P = 0.005). Using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to predict MMD, the highest area under the curve (AUC) was determined for SII (0.76 for SII, 0.69 for NLR, and 0.66 for PLR).ConclusionBased on the results of this study, patients with moyamoya disease admitted for inpatient care due to acute or chronic stroke have significantly higher SII, NLR, and PLR when compared to blood samples drawn from completely healthy controls in a non-emergent outpatient setting. While the findings may suggest that inflammation plays a role in moyamoya disease, further studies are warranted to corroborate such an association. In the middle stage of moyamoya disease, there may be a more intense imbalance of immune inflammation. Further studies are needed to determine whether the SII index contributes to the diagnosis or serves as a potential marker of an inflammatory response in patients with moyamoya disease

    Full-length single-cell RNA-seq applied to a viral human cancer:applications to HPV expression and splicing analysis in HeLa S3 cells

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    Background: Viral infection causes multiple forms of human cancer, and HPV infection is the primary factor in cervical carcinomas Recent single-cell RNA-seq studies highlight the tumor heterogeneity present in most cancers, but virally induced tumors have not been studied HeLa is a well characterized HPV+ cervical cancer cell line Result: We developed a new high throughput platform to prepare single-cell RNA on a nanoliter scale based on a customized microwell chip Using this method, we successfully amplified full-length transcripts of 669 single HeLa S3 cells and 40 of them were randomly selected to perform single-cell RNA sequencing Based on these data, we obtained a comprehensive understanding of the heterogeneity of HeLa S3 cells in gene expression, alternative splicing and fusions Furthermore, we identified a high diversity of HPV-18 expression and splicing at the single-cell level By co-expression analysis we identified 283 E6, E7 co-regulated genes, including CDC25, PCNA, PLK4, BUB1B and IRF1 known to interact with HPV viral proteins Conclusion: Our results reveal the heterogeneity of a virus-infected cell line It not only provides a transcriptome characterization of HeLa S3 cells at the single cell level, but is a demonstration of the power of single cell RNA-seq analysis of virally infected cells and cancers

    Comparison of variations detection between whole-genome amplification methods used in single-cell resequencing

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    Background: Single-cell resequencing (SCRS) provides many biomedical advances in variations detection at the single-cell level, but it currently relies on whole genome amplification (WGA). Three methods are commonly used for WGA: multiple displacement amplification (MDA), degenerate-oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR) and multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC). However, a comprehensive comparison of variations detection performance between these WGA methods has not yet been performed. Results: We systematically compared the advantages and disadvantages of different WGA methods, focusing particularly on variations detection. Low-coverage whole-genome sequencing revealed that DOP-PCR had the highest duplication ratio, but an even read distribution and the best reproducibility and accuracy for detection of copy-number variations (CNVs). However, MDA had significantly higher genome recovery sensitivity (~84 %) than DOP-PCR (~6 %) and MALBAC (~52 %) at high sequencing depth. MALBAC and MDA had comparable single-nucleotide variations detection efficiency, false-positive ratio, and allele drop-out ratio. We further demonstrated that SCRS data amplified by either MDA or MALBAC from a gastric cancer cell line could accurately detect gastric cancer CNVs with comparable sensitivity and specificity, including amplifications of 12p11.22 (KRAS) and 9p24.1 (JAK2, CD274, and PDCD1LG2). Conclusions: Our findings provide a comprehensive comparison of variations detection performance using SCRS amplified by different WGA methods. It will guide researchers to determine which WGA method is best suited to individual experimental needs at single-cell level

    Evolution of multiple cell clones over a 29-year period of a CLL patient

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    Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is a frequent B-cell malignancy, characterized by recurrent somatic chromosome alterations and a low level of point mutations. Here we present single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray analyses of a single CLL patient over 29 years of observation and treatment, and transcriptome and whole-genome sequencing at selected time points. We identify chromosome alterations 13q14Ôłĺ, 6qÔłĺ and 12q+ in early cell clones, elimination of clonal populations following therapy, and subsequent appearance of a clone containing trisomy 12 and chromosome 10 copy-neutral loss of heterogeneity that marks a major population dominant at death. Serial single-cell RNA sequencing reveals an expression pattern with high FOS, JUN and KLF4 at disease acceleration, which resolves following therapy, but reoccurs following relapse and death. Transcriptome evolution indicates complex changes in expression occur over time. In conclusion, CLL can evolve gradually during indolent phases, and undergo rapid changes following therapy

    The 3rd Anti-UAV Workshop & Challenge: Methods and Results

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    The 3rd Anti-UAV Workshop & Challenge aims to encourage research in developing novel and accurate methods for multi-scale object tracking. The Anti-UAV dataset used for the Anti-UAV Challenge has been publicly released. There are two main differences between this year's competition and the previous two. First, we have expanded the existing dataset, and for the first time, released a training set so that participants can focus on improving their models. Second, we set up two tracks for the first time, i.e., Anti-UAV Tracking and Anti-UAV Detection & Tracking. Around 76 participating teams from the globe competed in the 3rd Anti-UAV Challenge. In this paper, we provide a brief summary of the 3rd Anti-UAV Workshop & Challenge including brief introductions to the top three methods in each track. The submission leaderboard will be reopened for researchers that are interested in the Anti-UAV challenge. The benchmark dataset and other information can be found at: https://anti-uav.github.io/.Comment: Technical report for 3rd Anti-UAV Workshop and Challenge. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:2108.0990
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