338,738 research outputs found

    Using Different Approaches to Evaluate Individual Social Equity in Transport

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    Inequalities not only exist in the field of economics in relation to income and wealth, but also in other areas, such as the transport sector, where access to and use of different transport modes varies markedly across population groups, and which provides the means to access everyday living activities. A key concern within the transport sector is that inequality has extended beyond the traditional measures of travel, and now covers a wide range of effects relating to social exclusion, freedom, well-being and being able to access reasonable opportunities and resources. In order to address the aforementioned issues, an important question to resolve is what type of methods can be used to measure inequalities in transport most effectively. Therefore, this study aims to apply different approaches, including the Capabilities Approach (CA) and a further six inequality indices, namely the Gini coefficient, the Atkinson index, the Palma ratio, the Pietra ratio, the Schutz coefficient and the Theil index, to the case study using the relatively migrant-rich lower-income neighbourhood of Tuqiao, in Beijing, in order to assess individual transport-related social inequity issues. The findings suggest that the CA is useful in assessing transport-related inequalities where there are significant barriers to the take up of accessibility, for example where there are high levels of disadvantaged groups and disaggregated analysis can be undertaken. The Palma ratio appears to have a larger effect than the Gini coefficient and the other inequality indices when measuring transport-related social inequity. In addition, we also found that most income inequality methods adapted from econometrics may be better suited to measuring transport-related social inequity between different regions, cities or countries, or within the same area, but at different points in time, rather than to measuring a single neighbourhood as a whole. Finally, we argue that to what extent politicians or transport planners can use appropriate management tools to measure transport-related social inequalities may be significant in terms of the progress that can be made in the fight against social inequity in the transport field

    Improved thermal performance of a large laminated lithium-ion power battery by reciprocating air flow

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    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.Thermal safety issues are increasingly critical for large-size laminated Lithium-Ion Batteries (LIBs). Despite a number of investigations conducted on the Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS) with reciprocating air-flow cooling, large laminated power LIBs are still not sufficiently investigated, particularly in the view of battery thermal characteristics. The present study investigates the thermal behaviors of an air-cooled NCM-type LIB (LiNi1−x−yCoxMnyO2 as cathode) from an experimental and systematic approach. The temperature distribution was acquired from different Depth of Discharge (DOD) by the infrared imaging (IR) technology. A reciprocating air-flow cooling method was proposed to restrict the temperature fluctuation and homogenize temperature distribution. Results showed that there was a remarkable temperature distribution phenomenon during the discharge process, the temperature distribution was affected by direction of air-flow. Forward air-flow (from current collector side to lower part of battery) was always recommended at the beginning of the discharge due to the thermal characteristics of the battery. After comprehensive consideration on battery temperature limit and cooling effect, the desired initial reversing timing was about 50% DOD at 3 C discharge rate. Different reversing strategies were investigated including isochronous cycles and aperiodic cycles. It was found that the temperature non-uniformity caused by heat accumulation and concentration was mitigated by reciprocating air-flow with optimized reversing strategy

    Comparisons and Applications of Four Independent Numerical Approaches for Linear Gyrokinetic Drift Modes

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    To help reveal the complete picture of linear kinetic drift modes, four independent numerical approaches, based on integral equation, Euler initial value simulation, Euler matrix eigenvalue solution and Lagrangian particle simulation, respectively, are used to solve the linear gyrokinetic electrostatic drift modes equation in Z-pinch with slab simplification and in tokamak with ballooning space coordinate. We identify that these approaches can yield the same solution with the difference smaller than 1\%, and the discrepancies mainly come from the numerical convergence, which is the first detailed benchmark of four independent numerical approaches for gyrokinetic linear drift modes. Using these approaches, we find that the entropy mode and interchange mode are on the same branch in Z-pinch, and the entropy mode can have both electron and ion branches. And, at strong gradient, more than one eigenstate of the ion temperature gradient mode (ITG) can be unstable and the most unstable one can be on non-ground eigenstates. The propagation of ITGs from ion to electron diamagnetic direction at strong gradient is also observed, which implies that the propagation direction is not a decisive criterion for the experimental diagnosis of turbulent mode at the edge plasmas.Comment: 12 pages, 10 figures, accept by Physics of Plasma

    Infrared imaging investigation of temperature fluctuation and spatial distribution for a large laminated lithium ion power battery

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    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link.The present study investigates the thermal behaviors of a naturally cooled NCM-type LIB (LiNi1−x−yCoxMnyO2 as cathode) from an experimental and systematic approach. The temperature distribution was acquired for different discharge rates and Depth of Discharge (DOD) by the infrared imaging (IR) technology. Two new factors, the temperature variance ( ) and local overheating index (LOH index), were proposed to assess the temperature fluctuation and distribution. Results showed that the heat generation rate was higher on the cathode side than that on the anode side due to the different resistivity of current collectors. For a low-power discharge, the eventual stable high-temperature zone occurred in the center of the battery, while with a high-power discharge, the upper part of the battery was the high temperature region from the very beginning of discharge. It was found that the temperature variance ( ) and local overheating index (LOH index) were capable of holistically exhibiting the temperature non-uniformity both on numerical fluctuation and spatial distribution with varying discharge rates and DOD. With increasing the discharge rate and DOD, temperature distribution showed an increasingly non-uniform trend, especially at the initial and final stage of high-power discharge, the heat accumulation and concentration area increased rapidly