26 research outputs found

    NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). Data report for tape VL0001

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    Atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are now being measured as part of the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP), using fully automated air sampling systems on board commercial 747 aircraft in routine airline service. Measurements of atmospheric ozone and related meteorological and flight information obtained during several GASP flights in March 1975 are now available from the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina. In addition to the data from the aircraft, tropopause pressure data obtained from the National Meteorological Center (NMC) archives for the dates of the flights are included. This report is the first of a series of reports which describes the data currently available from GASP, including flight routes and dates, instrumentation, the data processing procedure used, and data tape specifications

    Status of NASA aircraft engine emission reduction and upper atmosphere measurement programs

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    Advanced emission reduction techniques for five existing aircraft gas turbine engines are evaluated. Progress made toward meeting the 1979 EPA standards in rig tests of combustors for the five engines is reported. Results of fundamental combustion studies suggest the possibility of a new generation of jet engine combustor technology that would reduce oxides-of-nitrogen (NOx) emissions far below levels currently demonstrated in the engine-related programs. The Global Air Sampling Program (GAS) is now in full operation and is providing data on constituent measurements of ozone and other minor upper-atmosphere species related to aircraft emissions

    A hot gas generator for large scale supersonic combustor testing

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    Exhaust gas of hydrazine-nitrogen tetroxide rocket for simulating combustor inlet requirements of scramjet engine

    Experimental measurements of expanding storable-propellant products simulated by combustion of gaseous reactants

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    Gaseous reactant combustion simulation of dimethylhydrazine and hydrazine fuel system for nonequilibrium expansion studie

    Emission calculations for a scramjet powered hypersonic transport

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    Calculations of exhaust emissions from a scramjet powered hypersonic transport burning hydrogen fuel were performed over a range of Mach numbers of 5 to 12 to provide input data for wake mixing calculations and forecasts of future levels of pollutants in the stratosphere. The calculations were performed utilizing a one-dimensional chemical kinetics computer program for the combustor and exhaust nozzle of a fixed geometry dual-mode scramjet engine. Inlet conditions to the combustor and engine size was based on a vehicle of 227,000 kg (500,000 lb) gross take of weight with engines sized for Mach 8 cruise. Nitric oxide emissions were very high for stoichiometric engine operation but for Mach 6 cruise at reduced equivalence ratio are in the range predicted for an advanced supersonic transport. Combustor designs which utilize fuel staging and rapid expansion to minimize residence time at high combustion temperatures were found to be effective in preventing nitric oxide formation from reaching equilibrium concentrations

    Sulfate and nitrate collected by filter sampling near the tropopause

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    Filter samples collected near the tropopause with an F-106 aircraft and two Boeing 747 aircraft were analyzed for sulfate and nitrate ion content. Within the range of routine commercial flight altitudes (at or below 12.5 km), stratospheric mass mixing ratios for the winter-spring group averaged 0.26 ppbm for sulfate and 0.35 ppbm for nitrate. For the summer-fall group, stratosphere mixing ratios averaged 0.13 ppbm and 0.25 ppbm for sulfate and nitrate, respectively. Winter-spring group tropospheric mass mixing ratios averaged 0.08 ppbm for sulfate and 0.10 ppbm for nitrate, while summer-fall group tropospheric mixing ratios averaged 0.05 ppbm for sulfate and 0.08 ppbm for nitrate. Correlations of the filter data with available ozone data suggest that the sulfate and nitrate are transported from the stratosphere to the troposphere

    NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) data report for tape VL0004

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    The NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is obtaining measurements of atmospheric trace constituents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using fully automated air sampling systems on board several commercial B-747 aircraft in routine airline service. Atmospheric ozone, water vapor, and related flight and meteorological data were obtained during 139 flights of a United Airlines B-747 and a Pan American World Airways B-747 from December 1975 through March 1976. In addition, sample bottles were exposed during three flights and analyzed for trichlorofluoromethane, and filter samples were exposed during five flights and analyzed for sulfates, nitrates, and chlorides. Flight routes and dates, instrumentation, data processing procedures, data tape specifications, and selected analyses are discussed

    Global atmospheric sampling program

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    Automated instruments were installed on a commercial B-747 aircraft, during the program, to obtain baseline data and to monitor key atmospheric constituents associated with emissions of aircraft engines in order to determine if aircraft are contributing to pollution of the upper atmosphere. Data thus acquired on a global basis over the commercial air routes for 5 to 10 years will be analyzed. Ozone measurements in the 29,000 to 45,000 foot altitude were expanded over what has been available from ozonesondes. Limited aerosol composition measurements from filter samples show low levels of sulfates and nitrates in the upper troposphere. Recently installed instruments for measurement of carbon monoxide and condensation nuclei are beginning to return data

    Video analysis of ex vivo beating hearts during preservation on the TransMedics® organ care system

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    BackgroundReliable biomarkers for assessing the viability of the donor hearts undergoing ex vivo perfusion remain elusive. A unique feature of normothermic ex vivo perfusion on the TransMedics® Organ Care System (OCS™) is that the donor heart is maintained in a beating state throughout the preservation period. We applied a video algorithm for an in vivo assessment of cardiac kinematics, video kinematic evaluation (Vi.Ki.E.), to the donor hearts undergoing ex vivo perfusion on the OCS™ to assess the feasibility of applying this algorithm in this setting.MethodsHealthy donor porcine hearts (n = 6) were procured from Yucatan pigs and underwent 2 h of normothermic ex vivo perfusion on the OCS™ device. During the preservation period, serial high-resolution videos were captured at 30 frames per second. Using Vi.Ki.E., we assessed the force, energy, contractility, and trajectory parameters of each heart.ResultsThere were no significant changes in any of the measured parameters of the heart on the OCS™ device over time as judged by linear regression analysis. Importantly, there were no significant changes in contractility during the duration of the preservation period (time 0–30 min, 918 ± 430 px/s; time 31–60 min, 1,386 ± 603 px/s; time 61–90 min, 1,299 ± 617 px/s; time 91–120 min, 1,535 ± 728 px/s). Similarly, there were no significant changes in the force, energy, or trajectory parameters. Post-transplantation echocardiograms demonstrated robust contractility of each allograft.ConclusionVi.Ki.E. assessment of the donor hearts undergoing ex vivo perfusion is feasible on the TransMedics OCS™, and we observed that the donor hearts maintain steady kinematic measurements throughout the duration
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