118 research outputs found

    Nonlinear symmetry breaking of Aharonov-Bohm cages

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    We study the influence of mean field cubic nonlinearity on Aharonov-Bohm caging in a diamond lattice with synthetic magnetic flux. For sufficiently weak nonlinearities the Aharonov-Bohm caging persists as periodic nonlinear breathing dynamics. Above a critical nonlinearity, symmetry breaking induces a sharp transition in the dynamics and enables stronger wavepacket spreading. This transition is distinct from other flatband networks, where continuous spreading is induced by effective nonlinear hopping or resonances with delocalized modes, and is in contrast to the quantum limit, where two-particle hopping enables arbitrarily large spreading. This nonlinear symmetry breaking transition is readily observable in femtosecond laser-written waveguide arrays.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figure

    Photonic quantum Hall effects

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    This article reviews the development of photonic analogues of quantum Hall effects, which have given rise to broad interest in topological phenomena in photonic systems over the past decade. We cover early investigations of geometric phases, analogies between electronic systems and the spectra of periodic photonic media including photonic crystals, efforts to generalize topological band theory to open, dissipative, and nonlinear wave systems, pursuit of useful device applications, and ongoing studies of photonic Hall effects in classical nonlinear optics and the quantum regime of strong photon-photon interactions.Comment: Book chapter for Elsevier Encyclopedia of Condensed Matter Physics. Comments are welcom

    Optical isolation with nonlinear topological photonics

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    It is shown that the concept of topological phase transitions can be used to design nonlinear photonic structures exhibiting power thresholds and discontinuities in their transmittance. This provides a novel route to devising nonlinear optical isolators. We study three representative designs: (i) a waveguide array implementing a nonlinear 1D Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model, (ii) a waveguide array implementing a nonlinear 2D Haldane model, and (iii) a 2D lattice of coupled-ring waveguides. In the first two cases, we find a correspondence between the topological transition of the underlying linear lattice and the power threshold of the transmittance, and show that the transmission behavior is attributable to the emergence of a self-induced topological soliton. In the third case, we show that the topological transition produces a discontinuity in the transmittance curve, which can be exploited to achieve sharp jumps in the power-dependent isolation ratio.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figure

    Topological data analysis and machine learning

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    Topological data analysis refers to approaches for systematically and reliably computing abstract ``shapes'' of complex data sets. There are various applications of topological data analysis in life and data sciences, with growing interest among physicists. We present a concise yet (we hope) comprehensive review of applications of topological data analysis to physics and machine learning problems in physics including the detection of phase transitions. We finish with a preview of anticipated directions for future research.Comment: Invited review, 15 pages, 7 figures, 117 reference

    Photonic band structure design using persistent homology

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    The machine learning technique of persistent homology classifies complex systems or datasets by computing their topological features over a range of characteristic scales. There is growing interest in applying persistent homology to characterize physical systems such as spin models and multiqubit entangled states. Here we propose persistent homology as a tool for characterizing and optimizing band structures of periodic photonic media. Using the honeycomb photonic lattice Haldane model as an example, we show how persistent homology is able to reliably classify a variety of band structures falling outside the usual paradigms of topological band theory, including "moat band" and multi-valley dispersion relations, and thereby control the properties of quantum emitters embedded in the lattice. The method is promising for the automated design of more complex systems such as photonic crystals and Moire superlattices.Comment: Published version; 9 pages, 7 figure