295 research outputs found

    SOME IMPLICATIONS OF THE TWO-CONSTRAINT JOINT RECREATIONAL CHOICE DEMAND MODEL

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    This paper explores the implications of applying a two-constraint joint recreational demand framework to estimate the demand for recreation at an Alaskan sportfishery. The demand for total days on-site and total trips per season are jointly estimated and used to parametrically define average on-site time and obtain consumer's surplus values.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Valuing a Beach Day with a Repeated Nested Logit Model of Participation, Site Choice, and Stochastic Time Value

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    Beach recreation values are often needed by policy-makers and resource managers to efficiently manage coastal resources, especially in popular coastal areas like Southern California. This article presents welfare values derived from random utility maximization-based recreation demand models that explain an individual’s decisions about whether or not to visit a beach and which beach to visit. The models utilize labor market decisions to reveal each individual’s opportunity cost of recreation time. The value of having access to the beach in San Diego County is estimated to be between 21and21 and 23 per day.Recreation demand, repeated nested logit, labor supply, opportunity cost of leisure, time, beach recreation., Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Q26, J22, Q51.,

    ESTIMATING THE OPPORTUNITY COST OF RECREATION TIME IN AN INTEGRABLE 2-CONSTRAINT COUNT DEMAND MODEL

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    How researchers treat the opportunity cost of time substantially influences recreation demand parameter and welfare estimates. This paper presents a utility-theoretic and implementable approach, estimating the shadow value of time jointly with recreation demands for coastal activities, using a generalization of the semilog demand system in a two-constraint model.Consumer/Household Economics, Demand and Price Analysis,

    Environmental attitudes in the aftermath of the Gulf Oil Spill

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    In the 1960s and 1970\u27s, prominent environmental disasters seemed to mobilize the U.S. public, and many key environmental laws were subsequently enacted. Theories surrounding public opinion formation, however, generally regard single events as unlikely to impact attitudes in a major way. Given the conflicting evidence provided by anecdotal accounts and public opinion theory, we explore whether the Deepwater Horizon oil spill (Gulf Oil Spill) impacted public concern for the environment in the United States. In this study we use data from a national-level survey implemented before and after the Gulf Oil Spill to examine pre- and post-spill environmental attitudes as measured by a subset of the New Ecological Paradigm scale. We find that there is insufficient evidence to suggest that the recent Gulf Oil Spill had a significant impact on environmental attitudes, a result consistent with theories concerning the influence of individual events on public opinion. Additional findings imply that some types of messages are likely to be more effective than others in public communications about the environment

    Factors Influencing Physical Risk Taking in Rock Climbing

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    This study was designed to investigate factors influencing physical risk taking in the sport of rock climbing. Specifically, the relationships between physical risk taking, sensation seeking, spheres of control, and desirability of control were examined. One hundred five rock climbers from the United States completed a series of surveys measuring each of the above-mentioned psychological variables. As predicted, physical risk taking demonstrated significant positive relationships to both total sensation seeking and thrill/adventure seeking (TAS). The expected relationships between physical risk taking, personal control and desirability of control were not supported. As hypothesized, no substantive patterns were revealed between physical risk taking and interpersonal control or sociopolitical control. Finally, comparisons between high and low physical risk taking rock climbers revealed significant group differences for total sensation seeking, TAS, and disinhibition. The identification of predictors of physical risk taking is a key step toward identifying individuals likely to engage in high physical risk behavior, and under what circumstances they are likely to do so

    Adherence to Best Practices for Stated Preference Valuation within the U.S. Marine Ecosystem Services Literature

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    Non-market economic values derived from stated preference (SP) methods are often of interest for policy analysis and evaluation, program design, green accounting, and damage assessments and are increasingly in demand with adoption of ecosystem-based management approaches that emphasize accounting for ecosystem services and their values. A recent guidance prescribes a set of twenty-three best practices guidelines (BPGs) to follow when conducting a SP study to ensure the validity of the results and maximize its ability to provide reliable economic value information. In this article, we evaluate adherence to these guidelines within the U.S. SP marine ecosystem service valuation literature. Our results suggest adherence by the literature to the guidelines is heterogeneous with none of the studies examined adhering to all guidelines and some guidelines being adhered to better than others. Evidence points to adherence differences between older and more recent studies, between studies using different SP valuation methods, and between studies valuing recreation ecosystem services and ones valuing other ecosystem services. Furthermore, a citation analysis suggests studies addressing elements embodied in the BPGs tend to have more citations all else being equal. We discuss several challenges to valuing marine ecosystem services and areas for improvement and inquiry

    The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex mediates activation of TopBP1 by ATM

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    The activation of ATR-ATRIP in response to double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) depends upon ATM in human cells and Xenopus egg extracts. One important aspect of this dependency involves regulation of TopBP1 by ATM. In Xenopus egg extracts, ATM associates with TopBP1 and thereupon phosphorylates it on S1131. This phosphorylation enhances the capacity of TopBP1 to activate the ATR-ATRIP complex. We show that TopBP1 also interacts with the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex in egg extracts in a checkpoint-regulated manner. This interaction involves the Nbs1 subunit of the complex. ATM can no longer interact with TopBP1 in Nbs1-depleted egg extracts, which suggests that the MRN complex helps to bridge ATM and TopBP1 together. The association between TopBP1 and Nbs1 involves the first pair of BRCT repeats in TopBP1. In addition, the two tandem BRCT repeats of Nbs1 are required for this binding. Functional studies with mutated forms of TopBP1 and Nbs1 suggested that the BRCT-dependent association of these proteins is critical for a normal checkpoint response to DSBs. These findings suggest that the MRN complex is a crucial mediator in the process whereby ATM promotes the TopBP1-dependent activation of ATR-ATRIP in response to DSBs

    Defining the economic scope for ecosystem-based fishery management

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    Ecosystem-based fisheries management provides a framework for incorporating ecological linkages between fisheries into policymaking. However, relatively little attention has been given to economic linkages between fisheries: If fishers consider multiple fisheries when deciding where, when, and how much to fish, there is potential for management decisions in one fishery to generate spillover impacts in other fisheries. We evaluate changes in participation and economic connectivity of fisheries following the implementation of Alaska�s catch-share programs. Catch shares are increasingly used worldwide and typically implemented and evaluated on a single-fishery basis. We provide evidence that changes beyond the catch-share fishery have occurred, suggesting that spillovers should be considered when designing and evaluating catch-share policies.The emergence of ecosystem-based fisheries management (EBFM) has broadened the policy scope of fisheries management by accounting for the biological and ecological connectivity of fisheries. Less attention, however, has been given to the economic connectivity of fisheries. If fishers consider multiple fisheries when deciding where, when, and how much to fish, then management changes in one fishery can generate spillover impacts in other fisheries. Catch-share programs are a popular fisheries management framework that may be particularly prone to generating spillovers given that they typically change fishers� incentives and their subsequent actions. We use data from Alaska fisheries to examine spillovers from each of the main catch-share programs in Alaska. We evaluate changes in participation�a traditional indicator in fisheries economics�in both the catch-share and non�catch-share fisheries. Using network analysis, we also investigate whether catch-share programs change the economic connectivity of fisheries, which can have implications for the socioeconomic resilience and robustness of the ecosystem, and empirically identify the set of fisheries impacted by each Alaska catch-share program. We find that cross-fishery participation spillovers and changes in economic connectivity coincide with some, but not all, catch-share programs. Our findings suggest that economic connectivity and the potential for cross-fishery spillovers deserve serious consideration, especially when designing and evaluating EBFM policies

    Clinical Consensus Conference: Survey on Gram-Positive Bloodstream Infections with a Focus on Staphylococcus aureus

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    The increased incidence over the past decade of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by gram-positive bacteria, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , highlights the critical need for a consistent approach to therapy. However, there is currently no international consensus on the diagnosis and management of gram-positive BSIs. The Clinical Consensus Conference on Gram-Positive Bloodstream Infections was convened as a session at the 9th International Symposium on Modern Concepts in Endocarditis and Cardiovascular Infections held in 2007. Participants discussed various aspects of the practical treatment of patients who present with gram-positive BSI, including therapeutic options for patients with BSIs of undefined origin, the selection of appropriate empirical therapy, and treatment of complicated and uncomplicated BSIs. The opinions of participants about these key issues are reflected in this articl
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