302 research outputs found

    Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Models to Incorporate Chemical and Non-Chemical Stressors into Cumulative Risk Assessment: A Case Study of Pesticide Exposures

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    Cumulative risk assessment has been proposed as an approach to evaluate the health risks associated with simultaneous exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical stressors. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models can allow for the inclusion and evaluation of multiple stressors, including non-chemical stressors, but studies have not leveraged PBPK/PD models to jointly consider these disparate exposures in a cumulative risk context. In this study, we focused on exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides for children in urban low-income environments, where these children would be simultaneously exposed to other pesticides (including pyrethroids) and non-chemical stressors that may modify the effects of these exposures (including diet). We developed a methodological framework to evaluate chemical and non-chemical stressor impacts on OPs, utilizing an existing PBPK/PD model for chlorpyrifos. We evaluated population-specific stressors that would influence OP doses or acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, the relevant PD outcome. We incorporated the impact of simultaneous exposure to pyrethroids and dietary factors on OP dose through the compartments of metabolism and PD outcome within the PBPK model, and simulated combinations of stressors across multiple exposure ranges and potential body weights. Our analyses demonstrated that both chemical and non-chemical stressors can influence the health implications of OP exposures, with up to 5-fold variability in AChE inhibition across combinations of stressor values for a given OP dose. We demonstrate an approach for modeling OP risks in the presence of other population-specific environmental stressors, providing insight about co-exposures and variability factors that most impact OP health risks and contribute to children’s cumulative health risk from pesticides. More generally, this framework can be used to inform cumulative risk assessment for any compound impacted by chemical and non-chemical stressors through metabolism or PD outcomes

    Haptoglobin genotype predicts development of coronary artery calcification in a prospective cohort of patients with type 1 diabetes

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Coronary artery disease has been linked with genotypes for haptoglobin (Hp) which modulates extracorpuscular hemoglobin. We hypothesized that the Hp genotype would predict progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>CAC was measured three times in six years among 436 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 526 control subjects participating in the Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes (CACTI) study. Hp typing was performed on plasma samples by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>The Hp 2-2 genotype predicted development of significant CAC only in subjects with diabetes who were free of CAC at baseline (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.07-3.56, p = 0.03), compared to those without the Hp 2-2 genotype, controlling for age, sex, blood pressure and HDL-cholesterol. Hp 2 appeared to have an allele-dose effect on development of CAC. Hp genotype did not predict CAC progression in individuals without diabetes.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Hp genotype may aid prediction of accelerated coronary atherosclerosis in subjects with type 1 diabetes.</p

    Market-Driven Innovation

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    A new method for starting the iterative innovation process from the market side based on a sociological trend has been developed. It eliminates the traditional difference between the innovators and the sociological group that carries this trend, which can only be achieved by combining real-world innovation with innovation education. The method for market need discovery is presented as a step-by-step process with detailed reasoning, followed by a real-world example that details the outcomes at every step along the way. The example concludes with a detailed description of the outcome after the first innovation iteration cycle. The richness of the resulting concept demonstrates that an innovation process can be successfully started from the market side via the proposed method

    Deliberative and epistemic approaches to democracy

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    Deliberative and epistemic approaches to democracy are two important dimensions of contemporary democratic theory. This chapter studies these dimensions in the emerging ecosystem of civic and political participation tools, and appraises their collective value in a new distinct concept: linked democracy. Linked democracy is the distributed, technology-supported collective decision-making process, where data, information and knowledge are connected and shared by citizens online. Innovation and learning are two key elements of Athenian democracies which can be facilitated by the new digital technologies, and a cross-disciplinary research involving computational scientists and democratic theorists can lead to new theoretical insights of democracy

    The structural basis for partitioning of the XRCC1/DNA ligase III-α BRCT-mediated dimer complexes

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    The ultimate step common to almost all DNA repair pathways is the ligation of the nicked intermediate to form contiguous double-stranded DNA. In the mammalian nucleotide and base excision repair pathways, the ligation step is carried out by ligase III-α. For efficient ligation, ligase III-α is constitutively bound to the scaffolding protein XRCC1 through interactions between the C-terminal BRCT domains of each protein. Although structural data for the individual domains has been available, no structure of the complex has been determined and several alternative proposals for this interaction have been advanced. Interpretation of the models is complicated by the formation of homodimers that, depending on the model, may either contribute to, or compete with heterodimer formation. We report here the structures of both homodimer complexes as well as the heterodimer complex. Structural characterization of the heterodimer formed from a longer XRCC1 BRCT domain construct, including residues comprising the interdomain linker region, revealed an expanded heterodimer interface with the ligase III-α BRCT domain. This enhanced linker-mediated binding interface plays a significant role in the determination of heterodimer/homodimer selectivity. These data provide fundamental insights into the structural basis of BRCT-mediated dimerization, and resolve questions related to the organization of this important repair complex

    Log odds of carrying an Ancestral Mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 for a Defined personal and family history in an Ashkenazi Jewish woman (LAMBDA)

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    INTRODUCTION: Ancestral mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are common in people of Ashkenazi Jewish descent and are associated with a substantially increased risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Women considering mutation testing usually have several personal and family cancer characteristics, so predicting mutation status from one factor alone could be misleading. The aim of this study was to develop a simple algorithm to estimate the probability that an Ashkenazi Jewish woman carries an ancestral mutation, based on multiple predictive factors. METHODS: We studied Ashkenazi Jewish women with a personal or family history of breast or ovarian cancer and living in Melbourne or Sydney, Australia, or with a previous diagnosis of breast or ovarian cancer and living in the UK. DNA samples were tested for the germline mutations 185delAG and 5382insC in BRCA1, and 6174delT in BRCA2. Logistic regression was used to identify, and to estimate the predictive strength of, major determinants. RESULTS: A mutation was detected in 64 of 424 women. An algorithm was developed by combining our findings with those from similar analyses of a large study of unaffected Jewish women in Washington. Starting with a baseline score, a multiple of 0.5 (based on the logistic regression estimates) is added for each predictive feature. The sum is the estimated log odds ratio that a woman is a carrier, and is converted to a probability by using a table. There was good internal consistency. CONCLUSIONS: This simple algorithm might be useful in the clinical and genetic counselling setting. Comparison and validation in other settings should be sought

    Regional Chemotherapy in Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: RECLAP Trial

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Surgery offers the only chance for cure. However, less than twenty percent of patients are considered operative candidates at the time of diagnosis. A common reason for being classified as unresectable is advanced loco-regional disease.</p> <p>A review of the literature indicates that almost nine hundred patients with pancreatic cancer have received regional chemotherapy in the last 15 years. Phase I studies have shown regional administration of chemotherapy to be safe. The average reported response rate was approximately 26%. The average 1-year survival was 39%, with an average median survival of 9 months. Of the patients that experienced a radiographic response to therapy, 78 (78/277, 28%) patients underwent exploratory surgery following regional chemotherapy administration; thirty-two (41%) of those patients were amenable to pancreatectomy. None of the studies performed analyses to identify factors predicting response to regional chemotherapy.</p> <p>Progressive surgical techniques combined with current neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy strategies have already yielded emerging support for a multimodality approach to treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer.</p> <p>Intravenous gemcitabine is the current standard treatment of pancreatic cancer. However, >90% of the drug is secreted unchanged affecting toxicity but not the cancer per se. Gemcitabine is converted inside the cell into its active drug form in a rate limiting reaction. We hypothesize that neoadjuvant regional chemotherapy with continuous infusion of gemcitabine will be well tolerated and may improve resectability rates in cases of locally advanced pancreatic cancer.</p> <p>Design</p> <p>This is a phase I study designed to evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of super-selective intra-arterial administration of gemcitabine in patients with locally advanced, unresectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Patients considered unresectable due to locally advanced pancreatic cancer will receive super-selective arterial infusion of gemcitabine over 24 hours via subcutaneous indwelling port. Three to six patients will be enrolled per dose cohort, with seven cohorts, plus an additional six patients at the maximum tolerated dose; accrual is expected to last 36 months. Secondary objectives will include the determination of progression free and overall survival, as well as the conversion rate from unresectable to potentially resectable pancreatic cancer.</p> <p>Trial Registration</p> <p>ClinicalTrials.gov ID: <a href="http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01294358">NCT01294358</a></p