171 research outputs found

    CARMA \lambda = 1 cm Spectral Line Survey of Orion-KL

    Full text link
    Orion-KL is a well known high mass star forming region that has long been the target of spectral line surveys and searches for complex molecules. One spectral window where the region had never been surveyed is around wavelengths of \lambda=1 cm. This is an important window to observe due to the fundamental and low energy transitions of numerous complex molecules that indicate the maximum spatial extent of the molecular species; knowing the spatial distribution of a molecule aids in determining the formation mechanism(s) of that molecule. Additionally, there are fewer transitions in this window, reducing confusion caused by blended lines that can be very problematic at shorter wavelengths (<\lambda<3 mm). In this work, we present the first spectral line survey at \lambda=1 cm of the Orion-KL region. A total of 89 transitions were detected from 14 molecular species and isotopologues and two atomic species. The observations were conducted with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy in both interferometric and single dish modes.Comment: 67 pages, 65 figures, accepted for publication in A

    High Resolution \lambda = 2.7 mm Observations of L1551 IRS5: A Protobinary System?

    Full text link
    We present sub-arcsecond resolution imaging of the \lambda = 2.7 mm continuum emission from the young, embedded system L1551 IRS5 using the nine-element, high-resolution configuration of the BIMA array. The observed emission arises from two compact sources separated by 0\farcs35, coinciding with the two sources seen at \lambda = 2 cm and \lambda = 1.3 cm. When the high resolution data is combined with data from two compact configurations, L1551 IRS5 is argued to consist of a protobinary system separated by \sim50 AU with individual circumstellar disks, a circumbinary structure, and a large-scale envelope. The characteristic masses of the components are: 0.024 M_{\sun} for the northern circumstellar disk, 0.009 M_{\sun} for the southern circumstellar disk, 0.04 M_{\sun} for the circumbinary material, and 0.28 M_{\sun} for the envelope.Comment: 11 pages, 2 figures, late

    Young Stellar Groups Around Herbig Ae/Be Stars: A Low-Mass YSO Census

    Full text link
    We present NIR and MIR observations of eight embedded young stellar groups around Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAEBEs) using archived Spitzer IRAC data and 2MASS data. These young stellar groups are nearby (\leq 1 kpc) and still embedded within their molecular clouds. In order to identify the young stellar objects in our sample, we use the color-color diagram of J - [3.6] vs. Ks - [4.5]. The Spitzer images of our sample show that the groups around HAEBEs, spectral types earlier than B8, are usually associated with bright infrared nebulosity. Within this, there are normally 10 - 50 young stars distributed close to the HAEBEs (<< 1 pc). Not only are there young stars around the HAEBEs, there are also young stellar populations throughout the whole cloud, some are distributed and some are clumped. The groups around the HAEBEs are sub-structures of the large young population within the molecular cloud. The sizes of groups are also comparable with those sub-structures seen in massive clusters. Young stars in groups around HAEBEs have generally larger SED slopes compared to those outside, which suggests that the young stars in groups are probably younger than the distributed systems. This might imply that there is usually a higher and more continuous star forming rate in groups, that the formation of groups initiates later, or that low mass stars in groups form slower than those outside. Finally, there is no obvious trend between the SED slopes and the distance to the HAEBEs for those young stars within the groups. This suggests that the clustering of young stars dominates over the effect of massive stars on the low-mass young stars at the scale of our study.Comment: 33 pages, accepted to ApJ, see high resolution figures at http://www.astro.uiuc.edu/~swang9/papers/wang_groups.p

    Kinematics of the Envelope and Two Bipolar Jets in the Class 0 Protostellar System L1157

    Full text link
    A massive envelope and a strong bipolar outflow are the two main structures characterizing the youngest protostellar systems. In order to understand the physical properties of a bipolar outflow and the relationship with those of the envelope, we obtained a mosaic map covering the whole bipolar outflow of the youngest protostellar system L1157 with about 5"5" angular resolution in CO J=2-1 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. By utilizing these observations of the whole bipolar outflow, we estimate its physical properties and show that they are consistent with multiple jets. We also constrain a preferred precession direction. In addition, we observed the central envelope structure with 2"2" resolution in the =1.3\lambda=1.3 and 3 mm continua and various molecular lines: C17^{17}O, C18^{18}O, 13^{13}CO, CS, CN, N2_2H+^+, CH3_3OH, H2_2O, SO, and SO2_2. All the CO isotopes and CS, CN, and N2_2H+^+ have been detected and imaged. We marginally detected the features that can be interpreted as a rotating inner envelope in C17^{17}O and C18^{18}O and as an infalling outer envelope in N2_2H+^+. We also estimated the envelope and central protostellar masses and found that the dust opacity spectral index changes with radius.Comment: 43 pages, 13 figures, 3 tables, to be published in Ap

    ROME (Radio Observations of Magnetized Exoplanets). II. HD 189733 Does Not Accrete Significant Material from its Exoplanet like a T Tauri Star from A Disk

    Full text link
    It has been asserted that the primary star in the HD 189733 system steadily accretes evaporated exospheric gases from its ``hot Jupiter'' companion, rather like a T Tauri star accreting from a disk. We conduct statistical and periodogram analyses of the photometric time series of the primary, as acquired by the automated photoelectric telescope (APT), Microvariability and Oscillations of Stars (MOST), and Wise Observatory, to investigate this claim with the goal of revealing the presence of accretion shocks or photospheric accretion hotspots as are found in T Tauri systems such as AA Tau. None of the anticipated features were found. We re-analyze existing radio, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray data within the framework of accreting T Tauri systems to determine physical quantities such as plasma density and temperature, accretion rate, and flare lengths. We find that with an accretion rate of M109\dot{M}\sim10^{9} to 1011^{11} g s1^{-1}, the star is more similar to a system that intermittently absorbs gas from sungrazing comets in outburst than classical T Tauri systems, which have accretion rates at least two orders of magnitude larger. If such accretion exists, it would result in undetectably low activity at all wavelengths. Alternatively, all of the emission properties observed thus far are in agreement with stellar activity from a magnetically active star.Comment: Accepted by ApJ; 15 pages, 3 tables, 3 figure

    Morphological Evolution of Outflows from YSOs

    Full text link
    We present Spitzer IRAC images that indicate the presence of cavities cut into the dense outer envelope surrounding very young pre-main sequence stars. These young stellar objects (YSOs) characterized by an outflow represent the earliest stages of star formation. Mid-infrared photons thermally created by the central protostar/disk are scattered by dust particles within the outflow cavity itself into the line of sight. We observed this scattered light from 27 nearby, cavity-resolved YSOs, and quantified the shape of the outflow cavities. Using the grid models of Robitaille et al. (2006), we matched model spectral energy distributions (SEDs) to the observed SEDs of the 27 cataloged YSOs using photometry from IRAC, MIPS, and IRAS. This allows for the estimation of geometric and physical properties such as inclination angle, cavity density, and accretion rate. By using the relative parameter estimates determined by the models, we are able to deduce an evolutionary picture for outflows. Our work supports the concept that cavities widen with time, beginning as a thin jet-like outflow that widens to reveal the central protostar and disk until the protostellar envelope is completely dispersed by outflow and accretion.Comment: Accepted to Astrophysical Journa

    Earliest Stages of Protocluster Formation: Substructure and Kinematics of Starless Cores in Orion

    Full text link
    We study the structure and kinematics of nine 0.1 pc-scale cores in Orion with the IRAM 30-m telescope and at higher resolution eight of the cores with CARMA, using CS(2-1) as the main tracer. The single-dish moment zero maps of the starless cores show single structures with central column densities ranging from 7 to 42 times 10^23 cm^-2 and LTE masses from 20 solar masses to 154 solar masses. However, at the higher CARMA resolution (5 arcsec), all of the cores except one fragment into 3 - 5 components. The number of fragments is small compared to that found in some turbulent fragmentation models, although inclusion of magnetic fields may reduce the predicted fragment number and improve the model agreement. This result demonstrates that fragmentation from parsec-scale molecular clouds to sub-parsec cores continues to take place inside the starless cores. The starless cores and their fragments are embedded in larger filamentary structures, which likely played a role in the core formation and fragmentation. Most cores show clear velocity gradients, with magnitudes ranging from 1.7 to 14.3 km/s/pc. We modeled one of them in detail, and found that its spectra are best explained by a converging flow along a filament toward the core center; the gradients in other cores may be modeled similarly. We infer a mass inflow rate of ~ 2 x 10^{-3} Msolar/yr, which is in principle high enough to overcome radiation pressure and allow for massive star formation. However, the core contains multiple fragments, and it is unclear whether the rapid inflow would feed the growth of primarily a single massive star or a cluster of lower mass objects. We conclude that fast, supersonic converging flow along filaments play an important role in massive star and cluster formation.Comment: 20 pages, 12 figures, Accepted to Ap

    Scattering-Produced (Sub)millimeter Polarization in Inclined Disks: Optical Depth Effects, Near-Far Side Asymmetry, and Dust Settling

    Full text link
    Disk polarization at (sub)millimeter wavelengths is being revolutionized by ALMA observationally, but its origin remains uncertain. Dust scattering was recently recognized as a potential contributor to polarization, although its basic properties have yet to be thoroughly explored. Here, we quantify the effects of optical depth on the scattering-induced polarization in inclined disks through a combination of analytical illustration, approximate semi-analytical modeling using formal solution to the radiative transfer equation, and Monte Carlo simulations. We find that the near-side of the disk is significantly brighter in polarized intensity than the far-side, provided that the disk is optically thick and that the scattering grains have yet to settle to the midplane. This asymmetry is the consequence of a simple geometric effect: the near-side of the disk surface is viewed more edge-on than the far-side. It is a robust signature that may be used to distinguish the scattering-induced polarization from that by other mechanisms, such as aligned grains. The asymmetry is weaker for a geometrically thinner dust disk. As such, it opens an exciting new window on dust settling. We find anecdotal evidence from dust continuum imaging of edge-on disks that large grains are not yet settled in the youngest (Class 0) disks, but become more so in older disks. This trend is corroborated by the polarization data in inclined disks showing that younger disks have more pronounced near-far side asymmetry and thus less grain settling. If confirmed, the trend would have far-reaching implications for grain evolution and, ultimately, the formation of planetesimals and planets.Comment: 18 pages, 10 figures, accepted versio

    Morphological Complexity of Protostellar Envelopes

    Full text link
    Extinction maps at 8 micron from the Spitzer Space Telescope show that many Class 0 protostars exhibit complex, irregular, and on-axisymmetric structure within the densest regions of their dusty envelopes. Many of the systems have highly irregular and on-axisymmetric morphologies on scales \sim1000 AU, with a quarter of the sample exhibiting filamentary or flattened dense structures. Complex envelope structure is observed in regions spatially distinct from outflow cavities, and the densest structures often show no systematic alignment perpendicular to the cavities. We suggest that the observed envelope complexity is the result of collapse from protostellar cores with initially non-equilibrium structures. The striking non-axisymmetry in many envelopes could provide favorable conditions for the formation of binary systems. We then show that the kinematics around L1165 as probed with N2H+ are indicative of asymmetric infall; the velocity gradient is not perpendicular to the outflow.Comment: 4 pages; To appear in the proceedings for IAU Symposium 270: Computational Star Formatio

    A 16 au Binary in the Class 0 Protostar L1157 MMS

    Full text link
    We present VLA observations toward the Class 0 protostar L1157 MMS at 6.8 mm and 9 mm with a resolution of ~0.04" (14 au). We detect two sources within L1157 MMS and interpret these sources as a binary protostar with a separation of ~16 au. The material directly surrounding the binary system within the inner 50 au radius of the system has an estimated mass of 0.11 M_sun, calculated from the observed dust emission. We interpret the observed binary system in the context of previous observations of its flattened envelope structure, low rates of envelope rotation from 5000 to 200 au scales, and an ordered, poloidal magnetic field aligned with the outflow. Thus, L1157 MMS is a prototype system for magnetically-regulated collapse and the presence of a compact binary within L1157 MMS demonstrates that multiple star formation can still occur within envelopes that likely have dynamically important magnetic fields.Comment: 21 pages, 6 figures, 4 tables, accepted to Ap
    corecore