1,046 research outputs found

### A two-spacecraft test of a single spacecraft method of estimating shock normals

By assuming the validity of a subset of the Rankine-Hugoniot conservation relations for interplanetary (IP) shocks in an isotropic medium it has been demonstrated, in principle, that improved shock normals can be calculated by using a least-squares technique on combined magnetic field and plasma data from a single spacecraft. The scheme uses those six conservation relations not involving pressure and temperature. This paper deals with a test of the scheme by examining in detail a shock across which the magnetic field changed direction by a small amount (approximately 10 deg). On January 26, 1968 at about 1430 UT this shock was observed by the plasma and magnetic field instruments in Explorers 33 and 35. The spacecraft were 76.6 and 56.9 R sub E sunward of the earth, respectively (and 43.5 R sub E from each other), and therefore well outside the earth's bow shock region, a necessary condition for a valid test

### Community treatment orders in the UK 5 years on: a repeat national survey of psychiatrists

Aims and method Community treatment orders (CTOs) are increasingly embedded into UK practice and their use continues to rise. However, they remain highly controversial. We surveyed psychiatrists to establish their experiences and current opinions of using CTOs and to compare findings with our previous survey conducted in 2010. Results The opinions of psychiatrists in the UK have not changed since 2010 in spite of recent evidence questioning the effectiveness of CTOs. Clinical factors (the need for engagement and treatment adherence, and the achievement of adherence and improved insight) remain the most important considerations in initiating and discharging a CTO. Clinical implications Given the accumulating evidence from research and clinical practice that CTOs do not improve outcomes, it is concerning that psychiatrists' opinions have not altered in response, particularly given the implications for patient care

### Mariner 10 magnetic field observations of the Venus wake

Magnetic field measurements made over a 21-hour interval during the Mariner 10 encounter with Venus were used to study the down-stream region of the solar wind-Venus interaction over a distance of approximately 100 R sub v. For most of the day before closest approach the spacecraft was located in a sheath-like region which was apparently bounded by planetary bow shock on the outer side and either a planetary wake boundary or transient boundary-like feature on the inner side. The spacecraft made multiple encounters with the wake-like boundary during the 21-hour interval with an increasing frequency as it approached the planet. Each pass into the wake boundary from the sheath region was consistently characterized by a slight decrease in magnetic field magnitude, a marked increase in the frequency and amplitude of field fluctuations, and a systematic clockwise rotation of the field direction when viewed from above the plane of the planet orbit

### The causes of recurrent geomagnetic storms

The causes of recurrent geomagnetic activity were studied by analyzing interplanetary magnetic field and plasma data from earth-orbiting spacecraft in the interval from November 1973 to February 1974. This interval included the start of two long sequences of geomagnetic activity and two corresponding corotating interplanetary streams. In general, the geomagnetic activity was related to an electric field which was due to two factors: (1) the ordered, mesoscale pattern of the stream itself, and (2) random, smaller-scale fluctuations in the southward component of the interplanetary magnetic field Bz. The geomagnetic activity in each recurrent sequence consisted of two successive stages. The first stage was usually the most intense, and it occurred during the passage of the interaction region at the front of a stream. These large amplitudes of Bz were primarily produced in the interplanetary medium by compression of ambient fluctuations as the stream steepened in transit to 1 A.U. The second stage of geomagnetic activity immediately following the first was associated with the highest speeds in the stream

### A correlative study of SSC's, interplanetary shocks, and solar activity

A total of 93 SSC's were examined during the four year period from 1968 to 1971 at and near the peak of the solar activity cycle. Of the 93 SSC's 81 could be associated with solar activity, such as solar flares and radio bursts of Type II and Type IV. The mean propagation speeds of these flare-associated events ranged from 400 to 1000 km/sec with an average speed of 600-700 km/sec. Disturbances associated with 48 of the SSC's have been studied in detail using the corresponding interplanetary (IP) magnetic field, and plasma data when they were available. It was found that 41 of the 48 disturbances corresponded to IP shock waves, and the remaining seven events were tangential discontinuities. Thirty percent of the IP shocks had thick structure (i.e. the magnetic field jump across the shock occurred over a distance much greater than 50 proton Larmor radii). Also given is a statistical study of the gross geometry of a typical or average shock surface based on multiple spacecraft sightings and their relative orientation with respect to the solar flare. It is suggested that a typical shock front propagating out from the sun at l AU has a radius of curvature on the order of l AU. Also given are some general properties of oblique IP flare-shocks

### An extension of the dual magnetometer method for use on a dual spinning spacecraft

A method of estimating and correcting for the magnetic field of a dual spinning spacecraft has been developed by employing an extension of the dual magnetometer technique. This new method is useful for those situations in which a magnetometer boom of modest length is attached to the spinning part of a large spacecraft. The purpose of using a dual spinning spacecraft is to accommodate two types of instruments: imaging and similar pointed remote sensing systems on the stationary platform, and fields, particles and other in-situ measuring instruments on the spinning portion. The new method assumes that the stationary part of the spacecraft possesses a magnetic field which is represented by a combination of a dipole and a quadrupole field

### Modification to shock fitting program

A modified form of the Lepping - Argentiero single spacecraft, shock normal determination procedure is presented. The modified method incorporates a simple predictor-corrector algorithm which allows a faster convergence rate and the use of average values of the parameters for the starting vector

### Magnetopause surface fluctuations observed by Voyager 1

Moving out of the dawnside of the earth's magnetosphere, Voyager 1 crossed the magnetopause apparently seven times, despite the high spacecraft speed of 11 km/sec. Normals to the magnetopause and their associated error cones were estimated for each of the crossings using a minimum variance analysis of the internal magnetic field. The oscillating nature of the ecliptic plane component of these normals indicates that most of the multiple crossings were due to a wave-like surface disturbance moving tailward along the magnetopause. The wave, which was aperiodic, was modeled as a sequence of sine waves. The amplitude, wavelength, and speed were determined for two pairs of intervals from the measured slopes, occurrence times, and relative positions of six magnetopause crossings. The magnetopause thickness was estimated to lie in the range 300 to 700 km with higher values possible. The estimated amplitude of these waves was obviously small compared to their wavelengths

### Magnetic field directional discontinuities. 2: Characteristics between 0.46 and 1.0 AU

The characteristics of directional discontinuities (DD's) in the interplanetary magnetic field are studied using data from the Mariner 10 primary mission between 1.0 and 0.46 AU. Statistical and visual survey methods for DD identification resulted in a total of 644 events. Two methods were used to estimate the ratio of the number of tangential discontinuities (TD's) to the number of rotational discontinuities (RD's). Both methods show that the ratio of TD's to RD's varied with time and decreased with decreasing radial distance. A decrease in average discontinuity thickness of approx. 40 percent was found between 1.0 and 0.72 AU and approx. 54 percent between 1.0 and 0.46 AU, independent of type (TD or RD). This decrease in thickness for decreasing r is in qualitative agreement with Pioneer 10 observations between 1 and 5 AU. When the individual DD thickness are normalized with respect to the estimated local proton gyroradius (RA sub L), the average thickness at the three locations is nearly constant, 43 + or - 6 R sub L. This also holds true for both RD's and TD's separately. Statistical distributions of other properties, such as normal components and discontinuity plane angles, are presented

### Magnetic field directional discontinuities. 1: Minimum variance errors

Errors associated with the minimum variance analysis of directional discontinuity normal components were investigated using both computer simulation of discontinuities with controlled properties and the examination of current sheets observed by the Mariner 10 spacecraft. The simulated discontinuities were created by adding fluctuations, represented by isotropic noise, to exactly known but varying (in a plane) magnetic field components. An empirical expression for the magnitude of the error in an estimated discontinuity normal component, relative to the total field across the discontinuity, was derived, as well as other relevant statistical properties. Use of the empirical relation in the analysis of 644 discontinuities observed by Mariner 10 provides a more precise, but probably conservative, estimate of an upper bound on the relative normal component value for tangential discontinuities that can be used to separate rotational from tangential discontinuities in studies using only magnetic field data from a single spacecraft, at least for the interplanetary region of space considered

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