4,478 research outputs found

    Coordinated thermal and optical observations of Trans-Neptunian object (20000) Varuna from Sierra Nevada

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    We report on coordinated thermal and optical measurements of trans-Neptunian object (20000) Varuna obtained in January-February 2002, respectively from the IRAM 30-m and IAA 1.5 m telescopes. The optical data show a lightcurve with a period of 3.176+/-0.010 hr, a mean V magnitude of 20.37+/-0.08 and a 0.42+/-0.01 magnitude amplitude. They also tentatively indicate that the lightcurve is asymmetric and double-peaked. The thermal observations indicate a 1.12+/-0.41 mJy flux, averaged over the object's rotation. Combining the two datasets, we infer that Varuna has a mean 1060(+180/-220) km diameter and a mean 0.038(+0.022/-0.010) V geometric albedo, in general agreement with an earlier determination using the same technique.Comment: Accepted for publication in Astronomy & Astrophysics (7 pages, including 3 figures

    Lattice-Constrained Parametrizations of Form Factors for Semileptonic and Rare Radiative B Decays

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    We describe the form factors for semileptonic B to rho l nu and radiative B to K* gamma decays with just two parameters and the two form factors for semileptonic B to pi l nu decays with three parameters. The parametrizations are constrained by lattice results and are consistent with heavy quark symmetry, kinematic constraints and light cone sum rule scaling relations.Comment: 3 pages, latex, 2 eps files, uses epsf.sty and espcrc2.sty, poster presented at Lattice 97, Edinburgh, 22-26 July 199

    Exploring Io's atmospheric composition with APEX: first measurement of 34SO2 and tentative detection of KCl

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    The composition of Io's tenuous atmosphere is poorly constrained. Only the major species SO2 and a handful of minor species have been positively identified, but a variety of other molecular species should be present, based on thermochemical equilibrium models of volcanic gas chemistry and the composition of Io's environment. This paper focuses on the spectral search for expected yet undetected molecular species (KCl, SiO, S2O) and isotopes (34SO2). We analyze a disk-averaged spectrum of a potentially line-rich spectral window around 345 GHz, obtained in 2010 at the APEX-12m antenna (Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment). Using different models assuming either extended atmospheric distributions or a purely volcanically-sustained atmosphere, we tentatively measure the KCl relative abundance with respect to SO2 and derive a range of 4x10^{-4}-8x10^{-3}. We do not detect SiO or S2O and present new upper limits on their abundances. We also present the first measurement of the 34S/32S isotopic ratio in gas phase on Io, which appears to be twice as high as the Earth and ISM reference values. Strong lines of SO2 and SO are also analyzed to check for longitudinal variations of column density and relative abundance. Our models show that, based on their predicted relative abundance with respect to SO2 in volcanic plumes, both the tentative KCl detection and SiO upper limit are compatible with a purely volcanic origin for these species.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ. 11 pages, 4 figure

    B\Bbar mixing with the bulk fields in the Randall-Sundrum model

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    We calculate the B\Bbar mixing in the Randall-Sundrum bulk model. In this model, all the Standard Model fields except the Higgs can reside in the bulk. Two suggestive models of "mixed" and "relaxed" scenarios are considered. We find that the enhancement of the loop function is 0.51% for the "relaxed" and 1.07% for the "mixed" scenario when the first 4th KK modes are included, for a bulk fermion mass parameter Îœ=−0.3\nu=-0.3.Comment: REVTEX, 20 pages, 3 figure

    Dispersion relations and soft pion theorems for K -> pi pi

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    We propose a new method to obtain the K -> pi pi amplitude from K -> pi which allows one to fully account for the effects of final state interactions. The method is based on a set of dispersion relations for the K -> pi pi amplitude in which the weak Hamiltonian carries momentum. The soft pion theorem, which relates this amplitude to the K -> pi amplitude, can be used to determine one of the two subtraction constants - the second constant is at present known only to leading order in chiral perturbation theory. We solve the dispersion relations numerically and express the result in terms of the unknown higher order corrections to this subtraction constant.Comment: Latex, 10 pages, 1 figure. Typo in eqs. (13,14) corrected, some rephrasing in the introductio

    Titan's atmosphere as observed by Cassini/VIMS solar occultations: CH4_4, CO and evidence for C2_2H6_6 absorption

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    We present an analysis of the VIMS solar occultations dataset, which allows us to extract vertically resolved information on the characteristics of Titan's atmosphere between 100-700 km with a characteristic vertical resolution of 10 km. After a series of data treatment procedures, 4 occultations out of 10 are retained. This sample covers different seasons and latitudes of Titan. The transmittances show clearly the evolution of the haze and detect the detached layer at 310 km in Sept. 2011 at mid-northern latitudes. Through the inversion of the transmission spectra with a line-by-line radiative transfer code we retrieve the vertical distribution of CH4_4 and CO mixing ratio. The two methane bands at 1.4 and 1.7 {\mu}m are always in good agreement and yield an average stratospheric abundance of 1.28±0.081.28\pm0.08%. This is significantly less than the value of 1.48% obtained by the GCMS/Huygens instrument. The analysis of the residual spectra after the inversion shows that there are additional absorptions which affect a great part of the VIMS wavelength range. We attribute many of these additional bands to gaseous ethane, whose near-infrared spectrum is not well modeled yet. Ethane contributes significantly to the strong absorption between 3.2-3.5 {\mu}m that was previously attributed only to C-H stretching bands from aerosols. Ethane bands may affect the surface windows too, especially at 2.7 {\mu}m. Other residual bands are generated by stretching modes of C-H, C-C and C-N bonds. In addition to the C-H stretch from aliphatic hydrocarbons at 3.4 {\mu}m, we detect a strong and narrow absorption at 3.28 {\mu}m which we tentatively attribute to the presence of PAHs in the stratosphere. C-C and C-N stretching bands are possibly present between 4.3-4.5 {\mu}m. Finally, we obtain the CO mixing ratio between 70-170 km. The average result of 46±1646\pm16 ppm is in good agreement with previous studies.Comment: 51 pages, 28 figure

    First Lattice Study of the Form Factors A_0 and A_3 in the Decay Bbar^0 to rho^+ l^- nubar_l

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    We report on a lattice calculation of the form factors A_0 and A_3 for the pseudoscalar to vector meson semileptonic decay Bbar^0 to rho^+ l^- nubar_l. We find that resonant (or pole-type) contributions alone are unable to describe these two form factors simultaneously. For the quantity A_0(q^2=0), which is important phenomenologically for the determination of |Vub|, we extract a range of values, A_0(q^2=0) = (0.16--0.35) +0.09-0.06, where the range is due to systematic uncertainty and the quoted error is statistical. We have also determined A_2(q^2=0) = 0.28 +0.09-0.06 +0.04-0.05.Comment: 14 pages LaTeX209 with 5 figures from 11 encapsulated PostScript files, using epsf.sty. Also available from http://wwwhep.phys.soton.ac.uk/hepwww/papers/shep9601