597 research outputs found

    Determination of the Aortic Annulus Plane in CT Imaging—A Step-by-Step Approach

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    State of the art: iterative CT reconstruction techniques

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    Owing to recent advances in computing power, iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms have become a clinically viable option in computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Substantial evidence is accumulating about the advantages of IR algorithms over established analytical methods, such as filtered back projection. IR improves image quality through cyclic image processing. Although all available solutions share the common mechanism of artifact reduction and/or potential for radiation dose savings, chiefly due to image noise suppression, the magnitude of these effects depends on the specific IR algorithm. In the first section of this contribution, the technical bases of IR are briefly reviewed and the currently available algorithms released by the major CT manufacturers are described. In the second part, the current status of their clinical implementation is surveyed. Regardless of the applied IR algorithm, the available evidence attests to the substantial potential of IR algorithms for overcoming traditional limitations in CT imaging

    Dual energy imaging and intracycle motion correction for CT coronary angiography in patients with intermediate to high likelihood of coronary artery disease

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    We explored whether intracycle motion correction algorithms (MCAs) might be applicable to dual energy computed tomography coronary angiography in patients with intermediate to high likelihood of coronary artery disease. MCA reconstructions were associated with higher interpretability rates (96.7% vs 87.9%, P < .001), image quality scores (4.12±0.9 vs. 3.76±1.0; P < .0001), and diagnostic performance [area under the curve of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-0.97) vs 0.89 (95% CI 0.86-0.92); P < .0001] compared to conventional reconstructions. In conclusion, application of intracycle MCA reconstructions to dual energy computed tomography acquisitions was feasible and resulted in significantly higher image quality scores, interpretability, and diagnostic performance.Fil: Carrascosa, Patricia. DiagnĂłstico MaipĂș; ArgentinaFil: Deviggiano, Alejandro. DiagnĂłstico MaipĂș; ArgentinaFil: Leipsic, Jonathon A.. St. Paul's Hospital; CanadĂĄFil: Capunay, Carlos. DiagnĂłstico MaipĂș; ArgentinaFil: De Zan, Macarena C.. DiagnĂłstico MaipĂș; ArgentinaFil: Goldsmit, Alejandro. Sanatorio GĂŒemes; ArgentinaFil: Rodriguez Granillo, Gaston Alfredo. DiagnĂłstico MaipĂș; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Oficina de CoordinaciĂłn Administrativa Houssay. Instituto de Investigaciones CardiolĂłgicas. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Instituto de Investigaciones CardiolĂłgicas; Argentin

    Mixed Valvular Disease Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Quantification and Systematic Differentiation Using Clinical Measurements and Image-Based Patient‐Specific In Silico Modeling

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    Background: Mixed valvular disease (MVD), mitral regurgitation (MR) from pre‐existing disease in conjunction with paravalvular leak (PVL) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), is one of the most important stimuli for left ventricle (LV) dysfunction, associated with cardiac mortality. Despite the prevalence of MVD, the quantitative understanding of the interplay between pre‐existing MVD, PVL, LV, and post‐TAVR recovery is meager. Methods and Results: We quantified the effects of MVD on valvular‐ventricular hemodynamics using an image‐based patient‐specific computational framework in 72 MVD patients. Doppler pressure was reduced by TAVR (mean, 77%; N=72; P<0.05), but it was not always accompanied by improvements in LV workload. TAVR had no effect on LV workload in 22 patients, and LV workload post‐TAVR significantly rose in 32 other patients. TAVR reduced LV workload in only 18 patients (25%). PVL significantly alters LV flow and increases shear stress on transcatheter aortic valve leaflets. It interacts with mitral inflow and elevates shear stresses on mitral valve and is one of the main contributors in worsening of MR post‐TAVR. MR worsened in 32 patients post‐TAVR and did not improve in 18 other patients. Conclusions: PVL limits the benefit of TAVR by increasing LV load and worsening of MR and heart failure. Post‐TAVR, most MVD patients (75% of N=72; P<0.05) showed no improvements or even worsening of LV workload, whereas the majority of patients with PVL, but without that pre‐existing MR condition (60% of N=48; P<0.05), showed improvements in LV workload. MR and its exacerbation by PVL may hinder the success of TAVR

    Lung and Heart Diseases Are Better Predicted by Pack-Years than by Smoking Status or Duration of Smoking Cessation in HIV Patients

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    BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess the relationship of pack-years smoking and time since smoking cessation with risk of lung and heart disease. METHODS: We investigated the history of lung and heart disease in 903 HIV-infected patients who had undergone thoracic computed tomography (CT) imaging stratified by smoking history. Multimorbidity lung and heart disease (MLHD) was defined as the presence of 65 2 clinical or subclinical lung abnormalities and at least one heart abnormality. RESULTS: Among 903 patients, 23.7% had never smoked, 28.7% were former smokers and 47.6% were current smokers. Spirometry indicated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 11.4% of patients and MLHD was present in 53.6%. Age, male sex, greater pack-years smoking history and smoking cessation less than 5 years earlier vs. more than 10 years earlier (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.27-5.29, p = 0.009) were independently associated with CT detected subclinical lung and heart disease. Pack-years smoking history was more strongly associated with MLHD than smoking status (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: MLHD is common even among HIV-infected patients who never smoked and pack- years smoking history is a stronger predictor than current smoking status of MLHD. A detailed pack-years smoking history should be routinely obtained and smoking cessation strategies implemente

    Free-breathing Pulmonary (1)H and Hyperpolarized (3)He MRI: Comparison in COPD and Bronchiectasis.

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    RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: In this proof-of-concept demonstration, we aimed to quantitatively and qualitatively compare pulmonary ventilation abnormalities derived from Fourier decomposition of free-breathing (1)H magnetic resonance imaging (FDMRI) to hyperpolarized (3)He MRI in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchiectasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All subjects provided written informed consent to a protocol approved by a local research ethics board and Health, Canada, and they underwent MRI, computed tomography (CT), spirometry, and plethysmography during a single 2-hour visit. Semiautomated segmentation was used to generate ventilation defect measurements derived from FDMRI and (3)He MRI, and these were compared using analysis of variance and Pearson correlations. RESULTS: Twenty-six subjects were evaluated including 12 COPD subjects (67 ± 9 years) and 14 bronchiectasis subjects (70 ± 11 years). For COPD subjects, FDMRI and (3)He MRI ventilation defect percent (VDP) was 7 ± 6% and 24 ± 14%, respectively (P \u3c .001; bias = -16 ± 9%). In COPD subjects, FDMRI was significantly correlated with (3)He MRI VDP (r = .88; P = .0001), (3)He MRI apparent diffusion coefficient (r = .71; P \u3c .05), airways resistance (r = .60; P \u3c .05), and RA950 (r = .80; P \u3c .01). In subjects with bronchiectasis, FDMRI VDP (5 ± 3%) and (3)He MRI VDP (18 ± 9%) were significantly different (P \u3c .001) and not correlated (P \u3e .05). The Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) for FDMRI and (3)He MRI ventilation was 86 ± 7% for COPD and 86 ± 4% for bronchiectasis subjects (P \u3e .05); the DSC for FDMRI ventilation defects and CT RA950 was 19 ± 20% in COPD and 2 ± 3% in bronchiectasis subjects (P \u3c .01). CONCLUSIONS: FDMRI and (3)He MRI VDP were strongly related in COPD but not in bronchiectasis subjects. In COPD only, FDMRI ventilation defects were spatially related with (3)He ventilation defects and emphysema

    Aggregate Plaque Volume by Coronary Computed Tomography Angiography Is Superior and Incremental to Luminal Narrowing for Diagnosis of Ischemic Lesions of Intermediate Stenosis Severity

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    ObjectivesThis study examined the performance of percent aggregate plaque volume (%APV), which represents cumulative plaque volume as a function of total vessel volume, by coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) for identification of ischemic lesions of intermediate stenosis severity.BackgroundCoronary lesions of intermediate stenosis demonstrate significant rates of ischemia. Coronary CTA enables quantification of luminal narrowing and %APV.MethodsWe identified 58 patients with intermediate lesions (30% to 69% diameter stenosis) who underwent invasive angiography and fractional flow reserve. Coronary CTA measures included diameter stenosis, area stenosis, minimal lumen diameter (MLD), minimal lumen area (MLA) and %APV. %APV was defined as the sum of plaque volume divided by the sum of vessel volume from the ostium to the distal portion of the lesion. Fractional flow reserve ≀0.80 was considered diagnostic of lesion-specific ischemia. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and net reclassification improvement (NRI) were also evaluated.ResultsTwenty-two of 58 lesions (38%) caused ischemia. Compared with nonischemic lesions, ischemic lesions had smaller MLD (1.3 vs. 1.7 mm, p = 0.01), smaller MLA (2.5 vs. 3.8 mm2, p = 0.01), and greater %APV (48.9% vs. 39.3%, p < 0.0001). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was highest for %APV (0.85) compared with diameter stenosis (0.68), area stenosis (0.66), MLD (0.75), or MLA (0.78). Addition of %APV to other measures showed significant reclassification over diameter stenosis (NRI 0.77, p < 0.001), area stenosis (NRI 0.63, p = 0.002), MLD (NRI 0.62, p = 0.001), and MLA (NRI 0.43, p = 0.01).ConclusionsCompared with diameter stenosis, area stenosis, MLD, and MLA, %APV by coronary CTA improves identification, discrimination, and reclassification of ischemic lesions of intermediate stenosis severity

    Emphysema distribution and diffusion capacity predict emphysema progression in human immunodeficiency virus infection

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    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema are common amongst patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We sought to determine the clinical factors that are associated with emphysema progression in HIV. Methods 345 HIV-infected patients enrolled in an outpatient HIV metabolic clinic with \uf42 chest computed tomography scans made up the study cohort. Images were qualitatively scored for emphysema based on percentage involvement of the lung. Emphysema progression was defined as any increase in emphysema score over the study period. Univariate analyses of clinical, respiratory, and laboratory data, as well as multivariable logistic regression models, were performed to determine clinical features significantly associated with emphysema progression. Results 17.4% of the cohort were emphysema progressors. Emphysema progression was most strongly associated with having a low baseline diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and having combination centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema distribution. In adjusted models, the odds ratio (OR) for emphysema progression for every 10% increase in DLCO percent predicted was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.81). The equivalent OR (95% CI) for centrilobular and paraseptal emphysema distribution was 10.60 (2.93-48.98). Together, these variables had an area under the curve (AUC) statistic of 0.85 for predicting emphysema progression. This was an improvement over the performance of spirometry (forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity ratio), which predicted emphysema progression with an AUC of only 0.65. Conclusion Combined paraseptal and centrilobular emphysema distribution and low DLCO could identify HIV patients who may experience emphysema progression
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