38 research outputs found

### Intersective polynomials and polynomial Szemeredi theorem

Let P=\{p_{1},\ld,p_{r}\}\subset\Q[n_{1},\ld,n_{m}] be a family of polynomials such that p_{i}(\Z^{m})\sle\Z, i=1,\ld,r. We say that the family $P$ has {\it PSZ property} if for any set E\sle\Z with d^{*}(E)=\limsup_{N-M\ras\infty}\frac{|E\cap[M,N-1]|}{N-M}>0 there exist infinitely many $n\in\Z^{m}$ such that $E$ contains a polynomial progression of the form \hbox{\{a,a+p_{1}(n),\ld,a+p_{r}(n)\}}. We prove that a polynomial family P=\{p_{1},\ld,p_{r}\} has PSZ property if and only if the polynomials p_{1},\ld,p_{r} are {\it jointly intersective}, meaning that for any $k\in\N$ there exists $n\in\Z^{m}$ such that the integers p_{1}(n),\ld,p_{r}(n) are all divisible by $k$. To obtain this result we give a new ergodic proof of the polynomial Szemer\'{e}di theorem, based on the fact that the key to the phenomenon of polynomial multiple recurrence lies with the dynamical systems defined by translations on nilmanifolds. We also obtain, as a corollary, the following generalization of the polynomial van der Waerden theorem: If p_{1},\ld,p_{r}\in\Q[n] are jointly intersective integral polynomials, then for any finite partition of $\Z$, $\Z=\bigcup_{i=1}^{k}E_{i}$, there exist i\in\{1,\ld,k\} and $a,n\in E_{i}$ such that \{a,a+p_{1}(n),\ld,a+p_{r}(n)\}\sln E_{i}

### Homology of iterated semidirect products of free groups

Let $G$ be a group which admits the structure of an iterated semidirect product of finitely generated free groups. We construct a finite, free resolution of the integers over the group ring of $G$. This resolution is used to define representations of groups which act compatibly on $G$, generalizing classical constructions of Magnus, Burau, and Gassner. Our construction also yields algorithms for computing the homology of the Milnor fiber of a fiber-type hyperplane arrangement, and more generally, the homology of the complement of such an arrangement with coefficients in an arbitrary local system.Comment: 31 pages. AMSTeX v 2.1 preprint styl

### Modern rates of thermal denudation and thermal abrasion on western Kolguev Island

Destruction mechanisms and dynamics of the Arctic coast, also in the western sector of the Russian Arctic, are studied in detail, including the use of remote sensing data. However, data on thermal abrasion and thermo denudation of Kolguev island is quite limited. Some estimates were presented in article of M.A.Velikotsky (1998). Estimation of thermos denudation rates near the Sauchiha river mouth for the period 1948-2002 years was done by the authors earlier (Kizyakov& Perednya, 2003). To obtain data about the modern (after 2002) shoreline retreat rates and growth of thermal cirque a high resolution remote sensing data were involved in our research. Part of the western coast of the Kolguev island was inspected in field work conducted on 2002 by ECI SB RAS, together with VNIIOkeangeologia. The object of research was the part of coast, including a group of three coastal thermal cirques, located 3.5 km south of the Sauchiha river mouth. In 2012, within the framework of the project â€˜Geoportal of MSUâ€™ operational satellite imaging was done on Kolguev island by satellite FORMOSAT-2. High resolution satellite imagery provides ample opportunities for visual interpretation of coastal landforms. Aerial photographs (1948 and 1968), surveying materials (2002), high-resolution satellite images (2009 and 2012) became basis to study the dynamics of the coast and thermal cirques in the key area. For key area were calculated: retreat rates of the edge of the coastal terraces and thermal cirques for the periods 1948-1968, 1968-2002, 2002-2009, 2009-2012; retreat rates of the foot of the coastal terrace for the periods 2002-2009, 2009-2012; volume of the material enters the coastal zone by the thermal abrasion for one linear km of a coast (Kizyakov et al., 2013). Average long-term rates of retreat of the coastal terrace during 1948-2012 varied from 0.7 to 2.4 m/year; 2002-2012 varied from 1.7 to 2.4 m/year. Identified rates are distinctive for the part of coast from the mouth of Krivaya river to the curve of coastline near the mouth of the Gusinaya river - a length is 60.5 km. These rates are in 1.1-1.5 times lower than average rates of retreat of thermal cirque edges which are connected with melting of massive ice deposits. Averaged growth rates of the thermal cirques in 1948-2002 was 2.4 m/year; in 2002-2012 was - 2.6 m/year. The maximum growth rate on some sections in 2009-2012 were 14.5-15.1 m/year. These rates are the largest for the previously recorded in the Western sector of the Russian Arctic. The cause of the abnormally high rates is an increase the annual amount of positive air temperatures, which in 2011-2012 was 1.4-1.5 times higher than the long-term average. The determined rates of the development of thermal cirque can be extended to the north from the key area (near the Sauchiha river mouth) to the Gusinaya river mouth with total length of 32.3 km. The next plans on studying the coastal dynamics on Kolguev Island - using additional satellite images for the purposes of: detailization of interannual dynamics through the analysis of more short time span series of satellite images, definition of variations of the coastal destruction rates on the Western and Northern coasts. References: Velikotsky M.A. Characteristics of modern coastal dynamics of the Kolguev Island // Dynamics of the Russian Arctic coasts, Moscow, MSU â€“ 1989 â€“ P.93- 101 (In Russian) Kizyakov A.I., Perednya D.D. Destruction of coasts on the Yugorsky Peninsula and on Kolguev Island (Russia) // Permafrost: Abstr. of the 8th Intern. Conf. (Zurich, Switzerland, 21â€“25 July 2003). Zurich, Switzerland â€“ 2003 â€“ P. 79â€“80. Kizyakov A.I., Zimin M.V., Leibman M.O., Pravikova N.V. Monitoring the rate of thermal denudation and thermal abrasion on the western coast of Kolguev Island using high resolution satellite images // Earth Cryosphere (Kriosfera Zemli). â€“ 2013, XVII, No. 4 â€“ P. 15-25 (In Russian)

### Northern Hemisphere permafrost map based on TTOP modelling for 2000-2016 at 1 km<sup>2 </sup>scale

Permafrost is a key element of the cryosphere and an essential climate variable in the Global Climate Observing System. There is no remote-sensing method available to reliably monitor the permafrost thermal state. To estimate permafrost distribution at a hemispheric scale, we employ an equilibrium state model for the temperature at the top of the permafrost (TTOP model) for the 2000â€“2016 period, driven by remotely-sensed land surface temperatures, down-scaled ERA-Interim climate reanalysis data, tundra wetness classes and landcover map from the ESA Landcover Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project. Subgrid variability of ground temperatures due to snow and landcover variability is represented in the model using subpixel statistics. The results are validated against borehole measurements and reviewed regionally. The accuracy of the modelled mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) at the top of the permafrost is Â±2â€¯Â°C when compared to permafrost borehole data. The modelled permafrost area (MAGT 0) is around 21â€¯Ã—â€¯106â€¯km2 (22% of exposed land area), which is approximately 2â€¯Ã—â€¯106â€¯km2 less than estimated previously. Detailed comparisons at a regional scale show that the model performs well in sparsely vegetated tundra regions and mountains, but is less accurate in densely vegetated boreal spruce and larch forests

### Northern Hemisphere permafrost map based on TTOP modelling for 2000â€“2016 at 1â€¯km2 scale

Permafrost is a key element of the cryosphere and an essential climate variable in the Global Climate Observing System. There is no remote-sensing method available to reliably monitor the permafrost thermal state. To estimate permafrost distribution at a hemispheric scale, we employ an equilibrium state model for the temperature at the top of the permafrost (TTOP model) for the 2000â€“2016 period, driven by remotely- sensed land surface temperatures, down-scaled ERA-Interim climate reanalysis data, tundra wetness classes and landcover map from the ESA Landcover Climate Change Initiative (CCI) project. Subgrid variability of ground temperatures due to snow and landcover variability is represented in the model using subpixel statistics. The results are validated against borehole measurements and reviewed regionally. The accuracy of the modelled mean annual ground temperature (MAGT) at the top of the permafrost is Â±2â€¯Â°C when compared to permafrost borehole data. The modelled permafrost area (MAGT 0) is around 21â€¯Ã—â€¯106â€¯km2 (22% of exposed land area), which is approximately 2â€¯Ã—â€¯106â€¯km2 less than estimated previously. Detailed comparisons at a regional scale show that the model performs well in sparsely vegetated tundra regions and mountains, but is less accurate in densely vegetated boreal spruce and larch forests

### Evaluation of metabolomics profiles of grain from maize hybrids derived from near-isogenic GM positive and negative segregant inbreds demonstrates that observed differences cannot be attributed unequivocally to the GM trait

Introduction: Past studies on plant metabolomes have highlighted the influence of growing environments and varietal differences in variation of levels of metabolites yet there remains continued interest in evaluating the effect of genetic modification (GM). Objectives: Here we test the hypothesis that metabolomics differences in grain from maize hybrids derived from a series of GM (NK603, herbicide tolerance) inbreds and corresponding negative segregants can arise from residual genetic variation associated with backcrossing and that the effect of insertion of the GM trait is negligible. Methods: Four NK603-positive and negative segregant inbred males were crossed with two different females (testers). The resultant hybrids, as well as conventional comparator hybrids, were then grown at three replicated field sites in Illinois, Minnesota, and Nebraska during the 2013 season. Metabolomics data acquisition using gas chromatographyâ€“time of flight-mass spectrometry (GCâ€“TOF-MS) allowed the measurement of 367 unique metabolite features in harvested grain, of which 153 were identified with small molecule standards. Multivariate analyses of these data included multi-block principal component analysis and ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis. Univariate analyses of all 153 identified metabolites was conducted based on significance testing (Î±Â =Â 0.05), effect size evaluation (assessing magnitudes of differences), and variance component analysis. Results: Results demonstrated that the largest effects on metabolomic variation were associated with different growing locations and the female tester. They further demonstrated that differences observed between GM and non-GM comparators, even in stringent tests utilizing near-isogenic positive and negative segregants, can simply reflect minor genomic differences associated with conventional back-crossing practices. Conclusion: The effect of GM on metabolomics variation was determined to be negligible and supports that there is no scientific rationale for prioritizing GM as a source of variation.</p

### NEW PERMAFROST FEATURE â€“ DEP CRATER IN CENTRAL YAMAL (WEST SIBERIA, RUSIA) AS A RESPONSE TO LOCAL CLIMATE FLUCTUATIONS

This paper is based on field data obtained during short visits to a newly formed permafrost feature in a form of relatively narrow, deep crater. Excluding impossible and improbable versions of the craterâ€™s development, the authors conclude that it originated from warmerground temperatures and an increase in unfrozen water content, leading to an increase in pressure from gas emissions from permafrost and ground ice. This conclusion is also supported by known processes in the palaeo-geography of Yamal lakes and recent studies of gas-hydrate behavior and subsea processes in gas-bearing provinces