76 research outputs found

    Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

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    Purpose The objective was to assess the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We hypothesized a decrease in symptoms at follow-up, but that improvement relied on CPAP adherence. Methods The sample comprised 468 patients (mean age 55.5 years (SD = 12.0), 72% men) with OSA who received CPAP at a Norwegian hospital. OSA was diagnosed according to standard respiratory polygraphy. Mean baseline respiratory event index (REI) was 28.4 (SD = 20.6). Symptoms of anxiety and depression were assessed prior to CPAP treatment and at follow-up after a median of 20 weeks, range 6–52 weeks, with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Patients were classified as CPAP adherent (≥ 4 h per night) or non-adherent (< 4 h per night). Results There was a significant decrease in anxiety scores from baseline (mean = 5.16, SD = 3.94) to follow-up (mean = 4.76, SD = 3.81), p < 0.001. Similarly, depression scores decreased from baseline (mean = 4.31, SD = 3.66) to follow-up (mean = 3.89, SD = 3.69), p < 0.001. Cohen’s d (0.19 and 0.18, respectively) indicated small effect sizes. The reduction in anxiety scores did not depend on CPAP adherence (no interaction effect F(1, 466) = 0.422, p = 0.516), whereas the reduction in depression scores were seen only in the CPAP adherent group (interaction effect F(1, 466) = 7.738, p = 0.006). Conclusions We found a decrease in symptoms of anxiety and depression from baseline to follow-up of CPAP treatment. The improvement in symptoms of depression was depending on CPAP adherence. This underlines the importance of adherence for optimal effect of CPAP treatment.publishedVersio

    No Effect of a Self-Help Book for Insomnia in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Comorbid Chronic Insomnia – A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Objective: To compare the effects of a self-help book for insomnia to that of sleep hygiene advice in a randomized controlled trial with follow-up after about 3 months among patients who were diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and comorbid chronic insomnia, and who were concurrently initiating treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP).Methods: In all, 164 patients were included. OSA was diagnosed and categorized based on a standard respiratory polygraphic sleep study using a type 3 portable monitor. The self-help book focused on cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. The main outcome measure was insomnia severity assessed with the Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS) and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI).Results: The scores on the BIS improved significantly from pre-treatment to follow-up in the sleep hygiene advice group (26.8 vs. 21.8) and in the self-help book group (26.3 vs. 22.4). Similarly, the ISI scores were significantly improved in both conditions (sleep hygiene: 17.0 vs. 14.1; self-help book: 16.6 vs. 13.6). No time × condition interaction effects were detected, suggesting that the self-help book did not improve insomnia symptoms more than the sleep hygiene advice.Conclusion: In this randomized controlled trial among patients with OSA and comorbid insomnia who were initiating CPAP treatment, concurrently treating their insomnia with a self-help book did not improve sleep more than sleep hygiene advice. The statistically significant improved sleep at follow-up in both groups is most likely explained by the CPAP treatment

    Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Symptoms and Prevalence of Insomnia in Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Longitudinal Study

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    Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and insomnia are the two most common sleep disorders. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is considered first-line treatment for OSA. In the present study, we assess the effect of CPAP on symptoms and prevalence of insomnia in patients with OSA. We hypothesized a decrease in insomnia symptoms from CPAP initiation to follow-up, and that this decrease would depend on CPAP adherence. Materials and methods: The sample included 442 patients diagnosed with OSA [mean age 54.9 years (SD = 12.1), 74.4% males] who started treatment with CPAP at a university hospital. OSA was diagnosed according to standard respiratory polygraphy. Mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 30.1 (SD = 21.1) at baseline. Insomnia was assessed prior to CPAP treatment (baseline) and at follow-up after a median of 19.9 weeks (range 6–52 weeks) with the Bergen Insomnia Scale (BIS). CPAP adherence was defined as an average use of ≥ 4 h per night, whereas non-adherence was defined as < 4 h per night. Results: There was a significant decrease in BIS scores from baseline (mean = 18.8, SD = 9.8) to follow-up (mean = 12.9, SD = 9.9), p < 0.001. Cohen’s d(0.65) indicated a moderate effect size. The reduction in BIS scores was depending on CPAP adherence (interaction effect F(1,440) = 12.4, p < 0.001), with larger reduction in the adherent group than in the non-adherent group. The proportion of patients with chronic insomnia was significantly reduced from 51.1% at baseline to 33.0% at follow-up (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Overall, there was a significant reduction in insomnia symptoms from baseline to follow-up. The improvement was significant in both adherence groups, but the degree of improvement was larger among patients who were adherent to CPAP. Furthermore, there was a significant reduction in the prevalence of chronic insomnia at follow-up compared to baseline. This suggests that CPAP effectively reduces both the presence of insomnia and the severity of insomnia symptoms in some patients with OSA.publishedVersio

    Robot-Mediated Interviews with Children: What do potential users think?

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    This is a pre-copyedited, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication in Interaction Studies following peer review. Luke Jai Wood, Hagen Lehmann, Kerstin Dautenhahn, Ben Robins, Austen Rainer, and Dag Syrdal, 'Robot-mediated interviews with children: What do potential users think?', Interaction Studies, Vol. 17 (3): 438-460 (2016), DOI: 10.1075/is.17.3.07woo This article is under copyright and the publisher should be contacted for permission to re-use or reprint the material in any form. Publisher: John Benjamin Publishing CompanyTo date research investigating the potential of Robot-Mediated Interviews (RMI) has focused on establishing how children respond to robots in an interview scenario. In order to test if an RMI approach would work in a real world setting, it is important to establish what the experts (e.g. specialist child interviewers) would require from such a system. To determine the needs of such expert users we conducted three user panels with groups of potential real world users to gather their views of our current system and find out what they would require for the system to be useful to them. The user groups consisted of specialist police officers, intermediaries, educational specialists and healthcare specialists. To our knowledge this is the first article investigating user needs for Robot-Mediated Interviews. Due to the novelty of this work, the work presented in this paper is exploratory in nature. The results provide valuable insights into what real world users would need from a Robot-Mediated Interviewing system. Our findings will contribute to future research and technology development in the domain of RMI in particular, and child-robot interaction in general.Peer reviewe

    Association of Excessive Sleepiness, Pathological Fatigue, Depression, and Anxiety With Different Severity Levels of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate possible associations between obstructive sleep apnea and fatigue. This naturally led to considering the association between OSA and excessive sleepiness, depression, and anxiety. Background: OSA is a highly prevalent sleep disorder, associated with a risk of hypertension, cardiovascular events, daytime sleepiness, poor cognitive function, and sudden death during sleep. Both excessive sleepiness, fatigue, and symptoms of depression are frequently reported. Method: 5,464 patients referred to a university hospital for obstructive sleep apnea underwent standard respiratory polygraphy. The severity of OSA was defined as either mild, moderate, or severe, using the apnea–hypopnea index. Validated questionnaires were used to assess excessive sleepiness, pathological fatigue, depression, and anxiety. Results: Nearly 70% of the patients were men, and median age was 50 (range: 16–89) years. One in three had moderate-to-severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15). Excessive sleepiness and pathological fatigue were present in 43 and 39%, respectively. The prevalence of possible depression and anxiety was 19 and 28%, respectively. The proportion of patients with male sex, obesity, and excessive sleepiness increased with the severity of OSA. In contrast, the proportion of patients with pathological fatigue did not increase with OSA severity, and there was a decrease in depression and anxiety with increasing OSA severity. Conclusion: Our study reports that pathological fatigue, as well as anxiety and depression, did not increase with OSA severity, whereas excessive sleepiness did. Knowledge concerning conditions related to OSA severity may be indicative of pretest probability of OSA and thus change the priority for polygraphy. Furthermore, the high prevalence rates of fatigue, anxiety, and depression among these patients warrant further investigations.publishedVersio

    Robot-Mediated interviews: A field trial with a potential real-world user

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    © 2020 John Benjamins Publishing Company. This a peer reviewed, author’s accepted manuscript. Contact John Benjamins Publishing Company permission to re-use or reprint the material in any form.In recent years the possibility of using humanoid robots to perform interviews with children has been explored in a number of studies. This paper details a study in which a potential real-world user trialled a Robot-Mediated Interviewing system with children to establish if this approach could realistically be used in a real-world context. In this study a senior educational psychologist used the humanoid robot Kaspar to interview ten primary school children about a video they had watched prior to the interview. We conducted a pre and post interview with the educational psychologist before and after using the system to establish how the system worked for him and the perceived potential for real-world applications. The educational psychologist successfully used the system to interview the children and believed that principally using a small humanoid robot to interview children could be useful in a real-world setting provided the system was developed further.Peer reviewe

    Acoustic pharyngometry - A new method to facilitate oral appliance therapy

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    Background There is lack of reliable and accurate methods to predict treatment outcomes of oral appliance (OA) treatment. Acoustic pharyngometry (AP) is a non-invasive technique to evaluate the volume and minimal cross-sectional area of the upper airway, which may prove useful to locate the optimal position of OAs. Objective This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the effect of applying AP to OA treatment of patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Methods All patients (n = 244) treated with OAs following an AP protocol at two dental clinics between 2013 and 2018 were invited to participate. A total of 129 patients accepted the invitation, and 120 patients (75 men, 45 women) were included in the analyses. Mean baseline age, BMI and apnoea hypopnea index (AHI) were 59.1 ± 0.9 years, 27.8 ± 0.4 and 21.9 ± 1.1, respectively. Mean follow-up time was 318 ± 24 days. Results AHI at follow-up was 6.4 ± 0.7, resulting in a treatment success rate of 86.7% (≥50% reduction of baseline AHI). The number of failures ( 5 hours usage per night, when worn. Conclusion The AP protocol applied seems to contribute to the excellent effect of OA treatment in this study. Further research on the application of AP in OA treatment is necessary in order to clarify its possible beneficial contribution to improving OA therapy.publishedVersio

    The lower airways microbiome and antimicrobial peptides in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis differ from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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    Background The lower airways microbiome and host immune response in chronic pulmonary diseases are incompletely understood. We aimed to investigate possible microbiome characteristics and key antimicrobial peptides and proteins in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods 12 IPF patients, 12 COPD patients and 12 healthy controls were sampled with oral wash (OW), protected bronchoalveolar lavage (PBAL) and right lung protected sterile brushings (rPSB). The antimicrobial peptides and proteins (AMPs), secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) and human beta defensins 1 and 2 (hBD-1 & hBD-2), were measured in PBAL by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The V3V4 region of the bacterial 16S rDNA gene was sequenced. Bioinformatic analyses were performed with QIIME 2. Results hBD-1 levels in PBAL for IPF were lower compared with COPD. The predominant phyla in IPF were Firmicutes, Bacteroides and Actinobacteria; Proteobacteria were among top three in COPD. Differential abundance analysis at genus level showed significant differences between study groups for less abundant, mostly oropharyngeal, microbes. Alpha diversity was lower in IPF in PBAL compared to COPD (p = 0.03) and controls (p = 0.01), as well as in rPSB compared to COPD (p = 0.02) and controls (p = 0.04). Phylogenetic beta diversity showed significantly more similarity for IPF compared with COPD and controls. There were no significant correlations between alpha diversity and AMPs. Conclusions IPF differed in microbial diversity from COPD and controls, accompanied by differences in antimicrobial peptides. Beta diversity similarity between OW and PBAL in IPF may indicate that microaspiration contributes to changes in its microbiome.publishedVersio

    Complications and discomfort after research bronchoscopy in the MicroCOPD study

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    Background: Data on discomfort and complications from research bronchoscopy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma is limited. We present complications and discomfort occurring within a week after bronchoscopy, and investigate personal and procedural risk factors. Methods: 239 subjects with COPD, asthma or without lung disease underwent research bronchoscopies as part of a microbiome study of the lower airways (the MicroCOPD study). Bronchoscopy was done in the supine position with oral scope insertion with the option of light conscious alfentanil sedation. Sampling consisted of protected specimen brushes, bronchoalveolar lavage, small volume lavage and for some, endobronchial biopsies. Bleeding, desaturation, cough, haemodynamic changes, dyspnoea and other events that required an unplanned intervention or early termination of bronchoscopy were prospectively recorded. Follow-up consisted of a telephone interview where subjects rated discomfort and answered questions about fever sensation and respiratory symptoms in the week following bronchoscopy. Results: An unplanned intervention or early termination of bronchoscopy was required in 25.9% of bronchoscopies. Three subjects (1.3%) experienced potentially severe complications, of which all recovered without sequelae. COPD subjects experienced more dyspnoea than controls. Sedation and lower age was associated with less unplanned intervention or premature termination. About half of the subjects (47.7%) reported fever. Discomfort was associated with postprocedural fever, dread of bronchoscopy, higher score on the COPD Assessment Test and never-smoking. In subjects undergoing more than one bronchoscopy, the first bronchoscopy was often predictive for complications and postprocedural fever in the repeated bronchoscopy. Conclusion: Research bronchoscopies were not associated with more complications or discomfort in COPD subjects. 47.7% experienced postbronchoscopy fever sensation, which was associated with discomfort.publishedVersio

    Which activities threaten independent living of elderly when becoming problematic : inspiration for meaningful service robot functionality

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    Purpose: In light of the increasing elderly population and the growing demand for home care, the potential of robot support is given increasing attention. In this paper, an inventory of activities was made that threaten independent living of elderly when becoming problematic. Results will guide the further development of an existing service robot, the Care-O-bot®. Method: A systematic literature search of PubMed was performed, focused on the risk factors for institutionalization. Additionally, focus group sessions were conducted in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and France. In these focus group sessions, problematic activities threatening the independence of elderly people were discussed. Three separate target groups were included in the focus group sessions: (1) elderly persons (n = 41), (2) formal caregivers (n = 40) and (3) informal caregivers (n = 32). Results: Activities within the International Classification of Functioning domains mobility, self-care, and interpersonal interaction and relationships were found to be the most problematic. Conclusions: A distinct set of daily activities was identified that may threaten independent living, but no single activity could be selected as the main activity causing a loss of independence as it is often a combination of problematic activities that is person-specific. Supporting the problematic activities need not involve a robotic solution Read More: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/17483107.2013.840861Peer reviewe
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