217 research outputs found

    BitTorrent Experiments on Testbeds: A Study of the Impact of Network Latencies

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    In this paper, we study the impact of network latency on the time required to download a file distributed using BitTorrent. This study is essential to understand if testbeds can be used for experimental evaluation of BitTorrent. We observe that the network latency has a marginal impact on the time required to download a file; hence, BitTorrent experiments can performed on testbeds

    Studying Social Networks at Scale: Macroscopic Anatomy of the Twitter Social Graph

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    Twitter is one of the largest social networks using exclusively directed links among accounts. This makes the Twitter social graph much closer to the social graph supporting real life communications than, for instance, Facebook. Therefore, understanding the structure of the Twitter social graph is interesting not only for computer scientists, but also for researchers in other fields, such as sociologists. However, little is known about how the information propagation in Twitter is constrained by its inner structure. In this paper, we present an in-depth study of the macroscopic structure of the Twitter social graph unveiling the highways on which tweets propagate, the specific user activity associated with each component of this macroscopic structure, and the evolution of this macroscopic structure with time for the past 6 years. For this study, we crawled Twitter to retrieve all accounts and all social relationships (follow links) among accounts; the crawl completed in July 2012 with 505 million accounts interconnected by 23 billion links. Then, we present a methodology to unveil the macroscopic structure of the Twitter social graph. This macroscopic structure consists of 8 components defined by their connectivity characteristics. Each component group users with a specific usage of Twitter. For instance, we identified components gathering together spammers, or celebrities. Finally, we present a method to approximate the macroscopic structure of the Twitter social graph in the past, validate this method using old datasets, and discuss the evolution of the macroscopic structure of the Twitter social graph during the past 6 years.Comment: ACM Sigmetrics 2014 (2014

    Network Non-neutrality Debate: An Economic Analysis

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    This paper studies the economic utilities and the quality of service (QoS) in a two-sided non-neutral market where Internet service providers (ISPs) charge content providers (CPs) for the content delivery. We propose new models on a two-sided market which involves a CP, an ISP, end users and advertisers. The CP may have either the subscription revenue model (charging end users) or the advertisement revenue model (charging advertisers). We formulate the interactions between the ISP and the CP as a noncooperative game problem for the former and an optimization problem for the latter. Our analysis shows that the revenue model of the CP plays a significant role in a non-neutral Internet. With the subscription model, both the ISP and the CP receive better (or worse) utilities as well as QoS in the presence of side payment at the same time. However, with the advertisement model, the side payment impedes the CP from investing on its contents.Comment: 15 pages, 10 figure

    Understanding the Properties of the BitTorrent Overlay

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    In this paper, we conduct extensive simulations to understand the properties of the overlay generated by BitTorrent. We start by analyzing how the overlay properties impact the efficiency of BitTorrent. We focus on the average peer set size (i.e., average number of neighbors), the time for a peer to reach its maximum peer set size, and the diameter of the overlay. In particular, we show that the later a peer arrives in a torrent, the longer it takes to reach its maximum peer set size. Then, we evaluate the impact of the maximum peer set size, the maximum number of outgoing connections per peer, and the number of NATed peers on the overlay properties. We show that BitTorrent generates a robust overlay, but that this overlay is not a random graph. In particular, the connectivity of a peer to its neighbors depends on its arriving order in the torrent. We also show that a large number of NATed peers significantly compromise the robustness of the overlay to attacks. Finally, we evaluate the impact of peer exchange on the overlay properties, and we show that it generates a chain-like overlay with a large diameter, which will adversely impact the efficiency of large torrents

    How to Network in Online Social Networks

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    In this paper, we consider how to maximize users' influence in Online Social Networks (OSNs) by exploiting social relationships only. Our first contribution is to extend to OSNs the model of Kempe et al. [1] on the propagation of information in a social network and to show that a greedy algorithm is a good approximation of the optimal algorithm that is NP-hard. However, the greedy algorithm requires global knowledge, which is hardly practical. Our second contribution is to show on simulations on the full Twitter social graph that simple and practical strategies perform close to the greedy algorithm.Comment: NetSciCom 2014 - The Sixth IEEE International Workshop on Network Science for Communication Networks (2014

    Small Is Not Always Beautiful

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    Peer-to-peer content distribution systems have been enjoying great popularity, and are now gaining momentum as a means of disseminating video streams over the Internet. In many of these protocols, including the popular BitTorrent, content is split into mostly fixed-size pieces, allowing a client to download data from many peers simultaneously. This makes piece size potentially critical for performance. However, previous research efforts have largely overlooked this parameter, opting to focus on others instead. This paper presents the results of real experiments with varying piece sizes on a controlled BitTorrent testbed. We demonstrate that this parameter is indeed critical, as it determines the degree of parallelism in the system, and we investigate optimal piece sizes for distributing small and large content. We also pinpoint a related design trade-off, and explain how BitTorrent's choice of dividing pieces into subpieces attempts to address it

    Swarming Overlay Construction Strategies

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    Swarming peer-to-peer systems play an increasingly instrumental role in Internet content distribution. It is therefore important to better understand how these systems behave in practice. Recent research efforts have looked at various protocol parameters and have measured how they affect system performance and robustness. However, the importance of the strategy based on which peers establish connections has been largely overlooked. This work utilizes extensive simulations to examine the default overlay construction strategy in BitTorrent systems. Based on the results, we identify a critical parameter, the maximum allowable number of outgoing connections at each peer, and evaluate its impact on the robustness of the generated overlay. We find that there is no single optimal value for this parameter using the default strategy. We then propose an alternative strategy that allows certain new peer connection requests to replace existing connections. Further experiments with the new strategy demonstrate that it outperforms the default one for all considered metrics by creating an overlay more robust to churn. Additionally, our proposed strategy exhibits optimal behavior for a well-defined value of the maximum number of outgoing connections, thereby removing the need to set this parameter in an ad-hoc manner

    Pushing BitTorrent Locality to the Limit

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    Peer-to-peer (P2P) locality has recently raised a lot of interest in the community. Indeed, whereas P2P content distribution enables financial savings for the content providers, it dramatically increases the traffic on inter-ISP links. To solve this issue, the idea to keep a fraction of the P2P traffic local to each ISP was introduced a few years ago. Since then, P2P solutions exploiting locality have been introduced. However, several fundamental issues on locality still need to be explored. In particular, how far can we push locality, and what is, at the scale of the Internet, the reduction of traffic that can be achieved with locality? In this paper, we perform extensive experiments on a controlled environment with up to 10 000 BitTorrent clients to evaluate the impact of high locality on inter-ISP links traffic and peers download completion time. We introduce two simple mechanisms that make high locality possible in challenging scenarios and we show that we save up to several orders of magnitude inter-ISP traffic compared to traditional locality without adversely impacting peers download completion time. In addition, we crawled 214 443 torrents representing 6 113 224 unique peers spread among 9 605 ASes. We show that whereas the torrents we crawled generated 11.6 petabytes of inter-ISP traffic, our locality policy implemented for all torrents would have reduced the global inter-ISP traffic by 40%

    I Know Where You are and What You are Sharing: Exploiting P2P Communications to Invade Users' Privacy

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    In this paper, we show how to exploit real-time communication applications to determine the IP address of a targeted user. We focus our study on Skype, although other real-time communication applications may have similar privacy issues. We first design a scheme that calls an identified targeted user inconspicuously to find his IP address, which can be done even if he is behind a NAT. By calling the user periodically, we can then observe the mobility of the user. We show how to scale the scheme to observe the mobility patterns of tens of thousands of users. We also consider the linkability threat, in which the identified user is linked to his Internet usage. We illustrate this threat by combining Skype and BitTorrent to show that it is possible to determine the file-sharing usage of identified users. We devise a scheme based on the identification field of the IP datagrams to verify with high accuracy whether the identified user is participating in specific torrents. We conclude that any Internet user can leverage Skype, and potentially other real-time communication systems, to observe the mobility and file-sharing usage of tens of millions of identified users.Comment: This is the authors' version of the ACM/USENIX Internet Measurement Conference (IMC) 2011 pape

    Spying the World from your Laptop -- Identifying and Profiling Content Providers and Big Downloaders in BitTorrent

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    This paper presents a set of exploits an adversary can use to continuously spy on most BitTorrent users of the Internet from a single machine and for a long period of time. Using these exploits for a period of 103 days, we collected 148 million IPs downloading 2 billion copies of contents. We identify the IP address of the content providers for 70% of the BitTorrent contents we spied on. We show that a few content providers inject most contents into BitTorrent and that those content providers are located in foreign data centers. We also show that an adversary can compromise the privacy of any peer in BitTorrent and identify the big downloaders that we define as the peers who subscribe to a large number of contents. This infringement on users' privacy poses a significant impediment to the legal adoption of BitTorrent
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