856 research outputs found

    The Peace Treaty as a U.S. Doctrinal Option and Its Application to the DPRK: A Historical and Analytic Review

    Get PDF
    Wars have made great contributions to the development of the U.S. Because the U.S. has often been victorious, achieving the purpose of their war, most wars ended with a surrender of the enemy or declaration of termination. The Americans concluded peace treaties only when they wanted to fundamentally restructure the regional order after the war or to realize their strategic interest from a broader, longer perspective in some parts of the world. This research is to analyze the peace treaties that the U.S. has signed so far or has mediated upon, searching for the possibility of making a U.S.-DPRK peace treaty. In light of the U.S. practice, the U.S.-DPRK Peace Treaty will not only be an agreement to officially terminate the Korean War, but shall be a “magna carta” for peace which is the ultimate concern of people in the Korean peninsula as well as in Northeast Asia. Time is ripe for the Trump-administration to accept “peaceful” co-existence instead of “hostile” co-existence

    The Peace Treaty as a U.S. Doctrinal Option and Its Application to the DPRK: A Historical and Analytic Review

    Get PDF
    Wars have made great contributions to the development of the U.S. Because the U.S. has often been victorious, achieving the purpose of their war, most wars ended with a surrender of the enemy or declaration of termination. The Americans concluded peace treaties only when they wanted to fundamentally restructure the regional order after the war or to realize their strategic interest from a broader, longer perspective in some parts of the world. This research is to analyze the peace treaties that the U.S. has signed so far or has mediated upon, searching for the possibility of making a U.S.-DPRK peace treaty. In light of the U.S. practice, the U.S.-DPRK Peace Treaty will not only be an agreement to officially terminate the Korean War, but shall be a “magna carta” for peace which is the ultimate concern of people in the Korean peninsula as well as in Northeast Asia. Time is ripe for the Trump-administration to accept “peaceful” co-existence instead of “hostile” co-existence

    Development of North Korea\u27s Legal Regime Governing Foreign Business Cooperation: A Revisit under the New Socialist Constitution of 1998

    Get PDF
    A primary purpose of this article is to examine the formation of North Korea\u27s legal regime governing foreign business cooperation and its evolution in the post-Kim Il Sung era. Since initiating its open-door policy in the early 1990s, North Korea has developed the legal framework for external economic cooperation. The Law of the Democratic People\u27s Republic of Korea ( DPRK ) on Foreign Investment of 1992 and its 1999 revision has especially represented North Korea\u27s legal and policy direction towards inducing foreign capital investment, as well as establishing a legal basis for the following laws and regulations in this field. The main focus of this research is on the Foreign Investment Law and its relevant legislation, including the Equity Joint Venture Law, the Contractual Joint Venture Law and the Foreign Enterprises Law. The Law of the DPRK on Joint Venture of 1984, which is the original model of lawmaking in external economic cooperation, will be also examined. A constitutional perspective, meanwhile, is maintained throughout the article. In conclusion, the future of North Korean foreign business laws and their implications in inter- Korean economic cooperation will be discussed

    Human Rights Protection of North Koreans in a Third Country: A Legal Approach

    Get PDF
    A primary purpose of writing this article is to investigate the situation of North Korean escapees in a third country including China, Russia or other countries and to search for international legal measures protecting their human rights. Since the mid-1990s, many North Koreans have escaped from either their country or from working places in another country, not to return to North Korea for political and economic reasons. Their defections have been accelerated by the severe food crisis and human rights abuses plaguing North Korea. As the number of the escapees has grown, their status has become a hot issue among the states concerned. It finally became a critical point at issue in international society with the forcible repatriation of seven North Korean escapees in January 2000. In order not to hand over these seven people and to protect their human rights, every possible international legal measure was taken at that time. Notwithstanding they should come back to North Korea. This question was a trigger of the discussion of human rights protection of North Korean escapees in a third country. The major tools of this study will be the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and other relevant legal measures. Diplomatic considerations should be also taken on these legal grounds. This paper mainly consists of three parts. The first part goes over the definition of escapees and refugees under international law. The main concerns of this part are two: who the North Korean escapees are and where they are located. The second part analyzes the legal status of North Korean escapees. The measures of their human rights protection will be checked under the 1951 Convention and other relevant legal measures. The third part will be devoted to searching for the diplomatic considerations over the issue on the legal grounds. For a final resolution, the paper will look at international cooperation of governments and NGOs

    Impact of crystallite size on the performance of a beryllium reflector

    Full text link
    Beryllium reflectors are used at spallation neutron sources in order to enhance the low-energy flux of neutrons emanating from the surface of a cold and thermal moderator. The design of such a moderator/reflector system is typically carried out using detailed Monte-Carlo simulations, where the beryllium reflector is assumed to behave as a poly-crystalline material. In reality, however, inhomogeneities in the beryllium could lead to discrepancies between the performance of the actual system when compared to the modeled system. The dependence of the total cross section in particular on crystallite size, in the Bragg scattering region, could influence the reflector performance, and if such effect is significant, it should be taken into account in the design of the moderator/reflector system. In this paper, we report on the preliminary results of using cross-section libraries, which include corrections for the crystallite size effect, in spallation source neutronics calculations.Comment: ICANS-XXII

    Cases of ethical violation in research publications: through editorial decision making process

    Get PDF
    Purpose – To improve and strengthen existing publication and research ethics, KODISA has identified and presented various cases which have violated publication and research ethics and principles in recent years. The editorial office of KODISA has been providing and continues to provide advice and feedback on publication ethics to researchers during peer review and editorial decision making process. Providing advice and feedback on publication ethics will ensure researchers to have an opportunity to correct their mistakes or make appropriate decisions and avoid any violations in research ethics. The purpose of this paper is to identify different cases of ethical violation in research and inform and educate researchers to avoid any violations in publication and research ethics. Furthermore, this article will demonstrate how KODISA journals identify and penalize ethical violations and strengthens its publication ethics and practices. Research design, data and methodology – This paper examines different types of ethical violation in publication and research ethics. The paper identifies and analyzes all ethical violations in research and combines them into five general categories. Those five general types of ethical violations are thoroughly examined and discussed. Results – Ethical violations of research occur in various forms at regular intervals; in other words, unethical researchers tend to commit different types of ethical violations repeatedly at same time. The five categories of ethical violation in research are as follows: (1) Arbitrary changes or additions in author(s) happen frequently in thesis/dissertation related publications. (2) Self plagiarism, submitting same work or mixture of previous works with or without using proper citations, also occurs frequently, but the most common type of plagiarism is changing the statistical results and using them to present as the results of the empirical analysis; (3) Translation plagiarism, another ethical violation in publication, is difficult to detect but occurs frequently; (4) Fabrication of data or statistical analysis also occurs frequently. KODISA requires authors to submit the results of the empirical analysis of the paper (the output of the statistical program) to prevent this type of ethical violation; (5) Mashup or aggregator plagiarism, submitting a mix of several different works with or without proper citations without alterations, is very difficult to detect, and KODISA journals consider this type of plagiarism as the worst ethical violation. Conclusions – There are some individual cases of ethical violation in research and publication that could not be included in the five categories presented throughout the paper. KODISA and its editorial office should continue to develop, revise, and strengthen their publication ethics, to learn and share different ways to detect any ethical violations in research and publication, to train and educate its editorial members and researchers, and to analyze and share different cases of ethical violations with the scholarly community

    Accounting Conservatism, Changes In Real Investment, And Analysts Earnings Forecasts

    Get PDF
    This study examines whether sell-side analysts fully incorporate into their earnings forecasts the joint effects between accounting conservatism and changes in real investment on the quality of current earnings. Our results indicate that sell-side analysts do not fully incorporate such effects when they forecast future earnings so that they overestimate (underestimate) future earnings when current earnings are inflated (depressed) by those effects. Thus, we conclude that sell-side analysts do not recognize fully the joint effects between accounting conservatism and real activity on the earnings quality and that they need to mitigate their bias to enhance market efficiency by providing investors with a good benchmark for their earnings expectation

    The Influence of Tibial Positioning on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Combined Posterior Cruciate Ligament and Posterolateral Rotatory Instability of the Knee

    Get PDF
    Background: To determine if tibial positioning affects the external rotation of the tibia in a dial test for posterolateral rotatory instability combined with posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries. Methods: Between April 2007 and October 2007, 16 patients with a PCL tear and posterolateral rotatory instability were diagnosed using a dial test. The thigh-foot angle was measured at both 30 ° and 90 ° of knee fl exion with an external rotation stress applied to the tibia in 2 different positions (reduction and posterior subluxation). The measurements were performed twice by 2 orthopedic surgeons. Results: In posterior subluxation, the mean side-to-side difference in the thigh-foot angle was 11.56 ± 3.01 ° at 30 ° of knee fl exion and 11.88 ± 4.03 ° at 90 ° of knee flexion. In the sequential dial test performed with the tibia reduced, the mean side-to-side difference was 15.94 ± 4.17 ° (p < 0.05) at 30 ° of knee fl exion and 16.88 ± 4.42 ° (p = 0.001) at 90 ° of knee fl exion. The mean tibial external rotation was 5.31 ± 2.86 ° and 6.87 ± 3.59 ° higher in the reduced position than in the posterior subluxation at both 30° and 90 ° of knee fl exion. Conclusions: In the dial test, reducing the tibia with an anterior force increases the ability of an examiner to detect posterolateral rotary instability of the knee combined with PCL injuries
    corecore