3,329 research outputs found

    Combinatorics in N = 1 Heterotic Vacua

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    We briefly review an algorithmic strategy to explore the landscape of heterotic E8 \times E8 vacua, in the context of compactifying smooth Calabi-Yau three-folds with vector bundles. The Calabi-Yau three-folds are algebraically realised as hypersurfaces in toric varieties and a large class of vector bundles are constructed thereon as monads. In the spirit of searching for Standard-like heterotic vacua, emphasis is placed on the integer combinatorics of the model-building programme.Comment: 14 pages. An introductory review prepared for the special issue "Computational Algebraic Geometry in String and Gauge Theory" of Advances in High Energy Physic

    Swampland Bounds on the Abelian Gauge Sector

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    We derive bounds on the number of abelian gauge group factors in six-dimensional gravitational theories with minimal supersymmetry and in their F-theoretic realisations. These bounds follow by requiring consistency of certain BPS strings in the spectrum of the theory, as recently proposed in the literature. Under certain assumptions this approach constrains the number of abelian gauge group factors in six-dimensional supergravity theories with at least one tensor multiplet to be N≤20N \leq 20 (or N≤22N \leq 22 in absence of charged matter). For any geometric F-theory realisation with at least one tensor multiplet we establish the bound N≤16N \leq 16 by demanding unitarity of a heterotic solitonic string which exists even in absence of a perturbative heterotic dual. This result extends to four-dimensional F-theory vacua on any blowup of a rational fibration. Our findings lead to universal bounds on the rank of the Mordell-Weil group of elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds.Comment: 10 pages, 2-column forma

    Emergent Strings, Duality and Weak Coupling Limits for Two-Form Fields

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    We systematically analyse weak coupling limits for 2-form tensor fields in the presence of gravity. Such limits are significant for testing various versions of the Weak Gravity and Swampland Distance Conjectures, and more broadly, the phenomenon of emergence. The weak coupling limits for 2-forms correspond to certain infinite-distance limits in the moduli space of string compactifications, where asymptotically tensionless, solitonic strings arise. These strings are identified as weakly coupled fundamental strings in a dual frame, which makes the idea of emergence manifest. Concretely we first consider weakly coupled tensor fields in six-dimensional compactifications of F-theory, where the arising tensionless strings play the role of dual weakly coupled heterotic strings. As the main part of this work, we consider certain infinite distance limits of Type IIB strings on K3 surfaces, for which we show that the asymptotically tensionless strings describe dual fundamental Type IIB strings, again on K3 surfaces. By contrast the analogous weak coupling limits of M-theory compactifications are found to correspond to an F-theory limit where an extra dimension emerges rather than tensionless strings. We comment on extensions of our findings to four-dimensional compactifications.Comment: 30 pages, 1 figure; v2: cosmetic changes and minor comments adde

    A Stringy Test of the Scalar Weak Gravity Conjecture

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    We prove a version of the Weak Gravity Conjecture for 6d F-theory or heterotic string compactifications with 8 supercharges. This sharpens our previous analysis by including massless scalar fields. The latter are known to modify the Weak Gravity Conjecture bound in two a priori independent ways: First, the extremality condition of a charged black hole is modified, and second, the test particles required to satisfy the Weak Gravity Conjecture are subject to additional Yukawa type interactions. We argue on general grounds that at weak coupling, the two types of effects are equivalent for a tower of asymptotically massless charged test particles predicted by the Swampland Distance Conjecture. We then specialise to F-theory compactified on elliptic Calabi-Yau three-folds and prove that the precise numerical bound on the charge-to-mass ratio is satisfied at weak coupling. This amounts to an intriguing coincidence of two a priori different notions of extremality, namely one based on the balance of gauge, gravitational and scalar forces for extremal (non-BPS) black holes, and the other encoded in the modular properties of certain Jacobi forms. In the presence of multiple abelian gauge group factors, the elliptic genus counting these states is a lattice quasi-Jacobi form of higher rank, and we exemplify this in a model with two abelian gauge group factors.Comment: 31 pages, 2 figure

    Modular Fluxes, Elliptic Genera, and Weak Gravity Conjectures in Four Dimensions

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    We analyse the Weak Gravity Conjecture for chiral four-dimensional F-theory compactifications with N=1 supersymmetry. Extending our previous work on nearly tensionless heterotic strings in six dimensions, we show that under certain assumptions a tower of asymptotically massless states arises in the limit of vanishing coupling of a U(1) gauge symmetry coupled to gravity. This tower contains super-extremal states whose charge-to-mass ratios are larger than those of certain extremal dilatonic Reissner-Nordstrom black holes, precisely as required by the Weak Gravity Conjecture. Unlike in six dimensions, the tower of super-extremal states does not always populate a charge sub-lattice. The main tool for our analysis is the elliptic genus of the emergent heterotic string in the chiral N=1 supersymmetric effective theories. This also governs situations where the heterotic string is non-perturbative. We show how it can be computed in terms of BPS invariants on elliptic four-folds, by making use of various dualities and mirror symmetry. Compared to six dimensions, the geometry of the relevant elliptically fibered four-folds is substantially richer than that of the three-folds, and we classify the possibilities for obtaining critical, nearly tensionless heterotic strings. We find that the (quasi-)modular properties of the elliptic genus crucially depend on the choice of flux background. Our general results are illustrated in a detailed example.Comment: 72 pages, 2 figure

    Abelianization of BPS Quivers and the Refined Higgs Index

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    We count Higgs "phase" BPS states of general non-Abelian quiver, possibly with loops, by mapping the problem to its Abelian, or toric, counterpart and imposing Weyl invariance later. Precise Higgs index computation is particularly important for quivers with superpotentials; the Coulomb "phase" index is recently shown to miss important BPS states, dubbed intrinsic Higgs states or quiver invariants. We demonstrate how the refined Higgs index is naturally decomposed to a sum over partitions of the charge. We conjecture, and show in simple cases, that this decomposition expresses the Higgs index as a sum over a set of partition-induced Abelian quivers of the same total charge but generically of smaller rank. Unlike the previous approach inspired by a similar decomposition of the Coulomb index, our formulae compute the quiver invariants directly, and thus offer a self-complete routine for counting BPS states.Comment: 38 pages, 13 figure
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