1,247 research outputs found

    Isolation and functional characterization of CE1 binding proteins

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that controls seed germination, protective responses to various abiotic stresses and seed maturation. The ABA-dependent processes entail changes in gene expression. Numerous genes are regulated by ABA, and promoter analyses of the genes revealed that <it>cis</it>-elements sharing the ACGTGGC consensus sequence are ubiquitous among ABA-regulated gene promoters. The importance of the core sequence, which is generally known as ABA response element (ABRE), has been demonstrated by various experiments, and its cognate transcription factors known as ABFs/AREBs have been identified. Although necessary, ABRE alone is not sufficient, and another <it>cis</it>-element known as "coupling element (CE)" is required for full range ABA-regulation of gene expression. Several CEs are known. However, despite their importance, the cognate transcription factors mediating ABA response via CEs have not been reported to date. Here, we report the isolation of transcription factors that bind one of the coupling elements, CE1.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>To isolate CE1 binding proteins, we carried out yeast one-hybrid screens. Reporter genes containing a trimer of the CE1 element were prepared and introduced into a yeast strain. The yeast was transformed with library DNA that represents RNA isolated from ABA-treated Arabidopsis seedlings. From the screen of 3.6 million yeast transformants, we isolated 78 positive clones. Analysis of the clones revealed that a group of AP2/ERF domain proteins binds the CE1 element. We investigated their expression patterns and analyzed their overexpression lines to investigate the <it>in vivo </it>functions of the CE element binding factors (CEBFs). Here, we show that one of the CEBFs, AtERF13, confers ABA hypersensitivity in Arabidopsis, whereas two other CEBFs enhance sugar sensitivity.</p> <p>Conclusions</p> <p>Our results indicate that a group of AP2/ERF superfamily proteins interacts with CE1. Several CEBFs are known to mediate defense or abiotic stress response, but the physiological functions of other CEBFs remain to be determined. Our <it>in vivo </it>functional analysis of several CEBFs suggests that they are likely to be involved in ABA and/or sugar response. Together with previous results reported by others, our current data raise an interesting possibility that the coupling element CE1 may function not only as an ABRE but also as an element mediating biotic and abiotic stress responses.</p

    Mathematical Distinction in Action Potential between Primo-Vessels and Smooth Muscle

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    We studied the action potential of Primo-vessels in rats to determine the electrophysiological characteristics of these structures. We introduced a mathematical analysis method, a normalized Fourier transform that displays the sine and cosine components separately, to compare the action potentials of Primo-vessels with those for the smooth muscle. We found that Primo-vessels generated two types of action potential pulses that differed from those of smooth muscle: (1) Type I pulse had rapid depolarizing and repolarizing phases, and (2) Type II pulse had a rapid depolarizing phase and a gradually slowing repolarizing phase

    Treatment-Seeking Behaviors and Related Epidemiological Features in Korean Acne Patients

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    Little is known about the treatment-seeking behaviors of acne patients, especially Asian acne patients. This study was performed to obtain detailed information about the treatment-seeking behaviors in Korean acne patients. Patients who visited the dermatology departments at 17 university hospitals completed a self-administered questionnaire. Most patients obtained information about acne from doctors or the Internet. The most important criteria for selecting a treatment method or choosing a particular clinic were effectiveness and accessibility. Patients used traditional medicine, visited beauty clinics, drank more water, and used over-the-counter topical agents more frequently than they sought doctors during the worsening period. The degree of satisfaction in treatment was found to depend on the total cost of treatment, number of places visited, site affected by acne, and emotional stress. Those who had experienced a side effect tended to have been treated for longer, to have paid more for treatment, and to have an associated skin disease. Treatments prescribed by dermatology clinics had the lowest aggravating rate, although improvement rates for family medicine clinics were also fairly high. This is the first study to investigate in detail the demographic features and characteristics of the treatment-seeking behaviors of acne patients in Asia

    ArrayXPath II: mapping and visualizing microarray gene-expression data with biomedical ontologies and integrated biological pathway resources using Scalable Vector Graphics

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    Summary: ArrayXPath () is a web-based service for mapping and visualizing microarray gene-expression data with integrated biological pathway resources using Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG). Deciphering the crosstalk among pathways and integrating biomedical ontologies and knowledge bases may help biological interpretation of microarray data. ArrayXPath is empowered by integrating gene-pathway, disease-pathway, drug-pathway and pathway–pathway correlations with integrated Gene Ontology, Medical Subject Headings and OMIM Morbid Map-based annotations. We applied Fisher's exact test and relative risk to evaluate the statistical significance of the correlations. ArrayXPath produces Javascript-enabled SVGs for web-enabled interactive visualization of gene-expression profiles integrated with gene-pathway-disease interactions enriched by biomedical ontologies

    Tetramethyl-O-scutellarin isolated from peels of immature Shiranuhi fruit exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on LPSinduced RAW264.7 cells

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    Purpose: To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the ethanol extract of the immature fruit of a citrus, Shiranuhi, and to identify the active ingredient.Methods: The immature Shiranuhi peel was extracted with 80 % ethanol, and the extract was fractionated with solvents (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol) to afford the corresponding fractions and water residue. Among them, the EtOAc-soluble portion was subjected to medium pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) over a reversed-phase SiO2 column to give compound 1. The isolated compound was identified based on the proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The release of nitric oxide, prostaglandin (PG)E2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 secreted by mouse macrophages was measured using RAW264.7 cell culture supernatant.Results: Shiranuhi (Korean name, Hallabong) is an important citrus species cultivated in Jeju Island, Korea. A polymethoxyflavonoid (PMF), tetramethyl-O-scutellarin (1), was isolated from the peels of immature Shiranuhi fruit. Upon the evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects, the flavonoid 1 decreased the nitric oxide production in macrophage cells with high efficiency, viz, 50 % inhibition concentration, IC50 of 57.4 μM. Subsequent studies demonstrated that PMF 1 effectively inhibited the generation of PGE2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 cytokine in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion: Tetramethyl-O-scutellarin (1) has been successfully isolated from Shiranuhi species for the first time. Thus, Shiranuhi fruit peel extract containing PMF 1 can potentially be applied as an antiinflammatory ingredient in food or cosmetic industries.Keywords: Shiranuhi fruit, Nitric oxide, Tetramethyl-O-scutellarin, Anti-inflammator

    Association between Participation in a Rehabilitation Program and 1-Year Survival in Patients Requiring Prolonged Mechanical Ventilation

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    Background The present study evaluated the association between participation in a rehabilitation program during a hospital stay and 1-year survival of patients requiring at least 21 days of mechanical ventilation (prolonged mechanical ventilation [PMV]) with various respiratory diseases as their main diagnoses that led to mechanical ventilation. Methods Retrospective data of 105 patients (71.4% male, mean age 70.1±11.3 years) who received PMV in the past 5 years were analyzed. Rehabilitation included physiotherapy, physical rehabilitation, and dysphagia treatment program that was individually provided by physiatrists. Results The main diagnosis leading to mechanical ventilation was pneumonia (n=101, 96.2%) and the 1-year survival rate was 33.3% (n=35). One-year survivors had lower Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (20.2±5.8 vs. 24.2±7.5, p=0.006) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (6.7±5.6 vs. 8.5±2.7, p=0.001) on the day of intubation than non-survivors. More survivors participated in a rehabilitation program during their hospital stays (88.6% vs. 57.1%, p=0.001). The rehabilitation program was an independent factor for 1-year survival based on the Cox proportional hazard model (hazard ratio, 3.513; 95% confidence interval, 1.785 to 6.930; p<0.001) in patients with APACHE II scores ≤23 (a cutoff value based on Youden’s index). Conclusion Our study showed that participation in a rehabilitation program during hospital stay was associated with an improvement of 1-year survival of PMV patients who had less severe illness on the day of intubation