4,970 research outputs found

### The energy flux into a fluidized granular medium at a vibrating wall

We study the power input of a vibrating wall into a fluidized granular
medium, using event driven simulations of a model granular system. The system
consists of inelastic hard disks contained between a stationary and a vibrating
elastic wall, in the absence of gravity. Two scaling relations for the power
input are found, both involving the pressure. The transition between the two
occurs when waves generated at the moving wall can propagate across the system.
Choosing an appropriate waveform for the vibrating wall removes one of these
scalings and renders the second very simple.Comment: 5 pages, revtex, 7 postscript figure

### Effects of Fermi energy, dot size and leads width on weak localization in chaotic quantum dots

Magnetotransport in chaotic quantum dots at low magnetic fields is
investigated by means of a tight binding Hamiltonian on L x L clusters of the
square lattice. Chaoticity is induced by introducing L bulk vacancies. The
dependence of weak localization on the Fermi energy, dot size and leads width
is investigated in detail and the results compared with those of previous
analyses, in particular with random matrix theory predictions. Our results
indicate that the dependence of the critical flux Phi_c on the square root of
the number of open modes, as predicted by random matrix theory, is obscured by
the strong energy dependence of the proportionality constant. Instead, the size
dependence of the critical flux predicted by Efetov and random matrix theory,
namely, Phi_c ~ sqrt{1/L}, is clearly illustrated by the present results. Our
numerical results do also show that the weak localization term significantly
decreases as the leads width W approaches L. However, calculations for W=L
indicate that the weak localization effect does not disappear as L increases.Comment: RevTeX, 8 postscript figures include

### Quasiparticle transport in the vortex state of YBa_2Cu_3O_6.9

The effect of vortices on quasiparticle transport in cuprate superconductors
was investigated by measuring the low temperature thermal conductivity of
YBa_2Cu_3O_6.9 in magnetic fields up to 8 T. The residual linear term (as T \to
0) is found to increase with field, directly reflecting the occupation of
extended quasiparticle states. A study for different Zn impurity concentrations
reveals a good agreement with recent calculations for a d-wave superconductor,
thereby shedding light on the nature of scattering by both impurities and
vortices. It also provides a quantitative measure of the gap near the nodes.Comment: 4 pages, 2 included eps figures, significant new analysis wrt other
experiments, to appear in Phys Rev Lett 29 March 199

### Observables for Two-Dimensional Black Holes

We consider the most general dilaton gravity theory in 1+1 dimensions. By
suitably parametrizing the metric and scalar field we find a simple expression
that relates the energy of a generic solution to the magnitude of the
corresponding Killing vector. In theories that admit black hole solutions, this
relationship leads directly to an expression for the entropy $S=2\pi \tau_0/G$,
where $\tau_0$ is the value of the scalar field (in this parametrization) at
the event horizon. This result agrees with the one obtained using the more
general method of Wald. Finally, we point out an intriguing connection between
the black hole entropy and the imaginary part of the ``phase" of the exact
Dirac quantum wave functionals for the theory.Comment: 14 pages, late

### Expanding the scope of density derived electrostatic and chemical charge partitioning to thousands of atoms

The density derived electrostatic and chemical (DDEC/c3) method is implemented into the onetep program to compute net atomic charges (NACs), as well as higher-order atomic multipole moments, of molecules, dense solids, nanoclusters, liquids, and biomolecules using linear-scaling density functional theory (DFT) in a distributed memory parallel computing environment. For a >1000 atom model of the oxygenated myoglobin protein, the DDEC/c3 net charge of the adsorbed oxygen molecule is approximately -1e (in agreement with the Weiss model) using a dynamical mean field theory treatment of the iron atom, but much smaller in magnitude when using the generalized gradient approximation. For GaAs semiconducting nanorods, the system dipole moment using the DDEC/c3 NACs is about 5% higher in magnitude than the dipole computed directly from the quantum mechanical electron density distribution, and the DDEC/c3 NACs reproduce the electrostatic potential to within approximately 0.1 V on the nanorodâ€™s solvent-accessible surface. As examples of conducting materials, we study (i) a 55-atom Pt cluster with an adsorbed CO molecule and (ii) the dense solids Mo2C and Pd3V. Our results for solid Mo2C and Pd3V confirm the necessity of a constraint enforcing exponentially decaying electron density in the tails of buried atoms

### Universal Heat Conduction in YBa_2Cu_3O_6.9

The thermal conductivity of YBa_2Cu_3O_6.9 was measured at low temperatures
in untwinned single crystals with concentrations of Zn impurities from 0 to 3%
of Cu. A linear term kappa_0/T = 0.19 mW/K^2.cm is clearly resolved as T -> 0,
and found to be virtually independent of Zn concentration. The existence of
this residual normal fluid strongly validates the basic theory of transport in
unconventional superconductors. Moreover, the observed universal behavior is in
quantitative agreement with calculations for a gap function of d-wave symmetry.Comment: Latex file, 4 pages, 3 EPS figures, to appear in Physical Review
Letter

### Supergravity Radiative Effects on Soft Terms and the $\mu$ Term

We compute quadratically divergent supergravity one-loop effects on soft
supersymmetry-breaking parameters and the $\mu$ term in generic hidden sector
supergravity models. These effects can significantly modify the matching
condition for soft parameters at the Planck scale and also provide several new
sources of the $\mu$ term which are naturally of order the weak scale. We also
discuss some phenomenological implications of these effects, particularly the
violation of the scalar mass universality which may lead to dangerous FCNC
phenomena, and apply the results to superstring effective supergravity models.Comment: 12 pages, REVTEX. One reference is adde

### Quasifree Pion Electroproduction from Nuclei in the $\Delta$ Region

We present calculations of the reaction $A(e,e^\prime \pi N)B$ in the
distorted wave impulse approximation. The reaction allows for the study of the
production process in the nuclear medium without being obscured by the details
of nuclear transition densities. First, a pion electroproduction operator
suitable for nuclear calculations is obtained by extending the Blomqvist-Laget
photoproduction operator to the virtual photon case. The operator is gauge
invariant, unitary, reference frame independent, and describes the existing
data reasonably well. Then it is applied in nuclei to predict nuclear cross
sections under a variety of kinematic arrangements. Issues such as the effects
of gauge-fixing, the interference of the $\Delta$ resonance with the
background, sensitivities to the quadrupole component of the $\Delta$
excitation and to the electromagnetic form factors, the role of final-state
interactions, are studied in detail. Methods on how to experimentally separate
the various pieces in the coincidence cross section are suggested. Finally, the
model is compared to a recent SLAC experiment.Comment: 27 pages in REVTEX, plus 22 PS figures embedded using psfig.sty
(included), uuencode

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