1,022 research outputs found

    Incidental finding of a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in a postmenopausal woman with complex endometrial hyperplasia

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    Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) arise from the non-germ cell component of the ovary and typically present in young women with evidence of hyperandrogenism such as precocious puberty, amenorrhea, hirsutism and virilization. It is very rare accounting for less than 0.2% of all ovarian tumors, and because of the rarity, no standardized treatment approach has reached a consensus. The prognosis is generally good with complete reversion of symptoms after surgery, although some cases have been reported to be malignant. Recently the need for DICER1 mutations testing in paediatric patients has been emphasized for the surveillance of possible synchronous tumors and affected family members. Authors present here a case of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor incidentally found while performing a hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in a postmenopausal woman with endometrial hyperplasia that caused intractable vaginal bleeding

    Autonomous control of terminal erythropoiesis via physical interactions among erythroid cells

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    AbstractIn vitro erythropoiesis has been studied extensively for its application in the manufacture of transfusable erythrocytes. Unfortunately, culture conditions have not been as effective as in vivo growth conditions, where bone marrow macrophages are known to be a key regulator of erythropoiesis. This study focused on the fact that some erythroblasts are detached from macrophages and only contact other erythroblasts. We hypothesized that additional factors regulate erythroblasts, likely through either physical contact or secreted factors. To further elucidate these critical factors, human erythroblasts derived from cord blood were cultured at high density to mimic marrow conditions. This growth condition resulted in a significantly increased erythroid enucleation rate and viability. We found several novel contact-related signals in erythroblasts: intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4) and deleted in liver cancer-1 (DLC-1). DLC-1, a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, has not previously been reported in erythroid cells, but its interaction with ICAM-4 was demonstrated here. We further confirmed the presence of a secreted form of human ICAM-4 for the first time. When soluble ICAM-4 was added to media, cell viability and enucleation increased with decreased nuclear dysplasia, suggesting that ICAM-4 is a key factor in contact between cells. These results highlight potential new mechanisms for autonomous control of erythropoiesis. The application of these procedures to erythrocyte manufacturing could enhance in vitro erythrocyte production for clinical use

    Polymorphisms in Apoptosis-Related Genes and TP53 Mutations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Apoptosis plays an essential role in the elimination of mutated or transformed cells from the body. Therefore, polymorphisms of apoptosis-related genes may lead to an alteration in apoptotic capacity, thereby affecting the occurrence of TP53 mutations in lung cancer. We investigated the relationship between potentially functional polymorphisms of apoptosis-related genes and TP53 mutations in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Twenty-seven single nucleotide polymorphisms in 20 apoptosis-related genes were genotyped by a sequenome mass spectrometry-based genotyping assay in 173 NSCLCs and the associations with TP53 mutations in the entire coding exons (exons 2-11), including splicing sites of the gene, were analyzed. None of the 27 polymorphisms was significantly associated with the occurrence of TP53 mutations. This suggests that apoptosis-related genes may not play an important role in the occurrence of TP53 mutations in lung cancer

    Identification of HLA-A*2402-restricted HCMV immediate early-1 (IE-1) epitopes as targets for CD8+ HCMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>To identify novel HLA-A*2402-restricted human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) immediate early-1 (IE-1) epitopes for adoptive immunotherapy, we explored 120 overlapping 15-amino acid spanning IE-1.</p> <p>Methods</p> <p>These peptides were screened by measuring the frequency of polyclonal CD8+ T cells producing intracellular interferon-γ (IFN-γ) using flow cytometry and the epitopes were validated with a HCMV-infected target Cr release cytotoxicity assay.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>Initial screening was performed with 12 mini-pools of 10 consecutive peptides made from 120 overlapping peptides15-amino acids in length that spanned IE-1. When peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HLA-A*2402 HCMV-seropositive donors were sensitized with each of the 12 mini-pools, mini-pools 1 and 2 induced the highest frequency of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) producing IFN-γ. When PBMCs were stimulated with each of the twenty peptides belonging to mini-pools 1 and 2, peptides IE-1<sub>1–15</sub>MESSAKRKMDPDNPD and IE-1<sub>5–19</sub>AKRKMDPDNPDEGPS induced the greatest quantities of IFN-γ production and cytotoxicity of HLA-matched HCMV-infected fibroblasts. To determine the exact HLA-A*2402-restricted epitopes within the two IE-1 proteins, we synthesized a total of twenty-one overlapping 9- or 10 amino acid peptides spanning IE-1<sub>1–15 </sub>and IE-1<sub>5–19</sub>. Peptide IE-1<sub>3–12</sub>SSAKRKMDPD induced the greatest quantities of IFN-γ production and target cell killing by CD8+ CTLs.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>HCMV IE-1<sub>3–12</sub>SSAKRKMDPD is a HLA-A*2402-restricted HCMV IE-1 epitope that can serve as a common target for CD8+ HCMV-specific CTLs.</p