217,474 research outputs found

    Persistence in systems with algebraic interaction

    Full text link
    Persistence in coarsening 1D spin systems with a power law interaction r1σr^{-1-\sigma} is considered. Numerical studies indicate that for sufficiently large values of the interaction exponent σ\sigma (σ1/2\sigma\geq 1/2 in our simulations), persistence decays as an algebraic function of the length scale LL, P(L)LθP(L)\sim L^{-\theta}. The Persistence exponent θ\theta is found to be independent on the force exponent σ\sigma and close to its value for the extremal (σ\sigma \to \infty) model, θˉ=0.17507588...\bar\theta=0.17507588.... For smaller values of the force exponent (σ<1/2\sigma< 1/2), finite size effects prevent the system from reaching the asymptotic regime. Scaling arguments suggest that in order to avoid significant boundary effects for small σ\sigma, the system size should grow as [O(1/σ)]1/σ{[{\cal O}(1/\sigma)]}^{1/\sigma}.Comment: 4 pages 4 figure

    N-Triflylphosphorimidoyl Trichloride: A Versatile Reagent for the Synthesis of Strong Chiral Brønsted Acids

    Get PDF
    A series of strong Brønsted acids has been synthesized in high yields using N-triflylphosphorimidoyl trichloride as reagent. The syntheses proceed efficiently with electron-rich, electron-deficient, and sterically hindered substrates

    ``Superfast'' Reaction in Turbulent Flow with Potential Disorder

    Full text link
    We explore the regime of ``superfast'' reactivity that has been predicted to occur in turbulent flow in the presence of potential disorder. Computer simulation studies confirm qualitative features of the previous renormalization group predictions, which were based on a static model of turbulence. New renormalization group calculations for a more realistic, dynamic model of turbulence show that the superfast regime persists. This regime, with concentration decay exponents greater than that for a well-mixed reaction, appears to be a general result of the interplay among non-linear reaction kinetics, turbulent transport, and local trapping by potential disorder.Comment: 14 pages. 4 figures. Uses IOP styles. To appear in J. Phys. A: Math. Ge

    Approaches and tools to manipulate the carbonate chemistry

    Get PDF
    Although the chemistry of ocean acidifi cation is very well understood (see chapter 1), its impact on marine organisms and ecosystems remains poorly known. The biological response to ocean acidifi cation is a recent field of research, the fi rst purposeful experiments have only been carried out as late as the 1980s (Agegian, 1985) and most were not performed until the late 1990s. The potentially dire consequences of ocean acidifi cation have attracted the interest of scientists and students with a limited knowledge of the carbonate chemistry and its experimental manipulation. Perturbation experiments are one of the key approaches used to investigate the biological response to elevated p(CO2). Such experiments are based on measurements of physiological or metabolic processes in organisms and communities exposed to seawater with normal and altered carbonate chemistry. The basics of the carbonate chemistry must be understood to perform meaningful CO2 perturbation experiments (see chapter 1). Briefl y, the marine carbonate system considers € CO2 ∗(aq) [the sum of CO2 and H2CO3], € HCO3 −, € CO3 2−, H+, € OH− , and several weak acid-base systems of which borate-boric acid (€ B(OH)4 − , B(OH)3) is the most important. As discussed by Dickson (chapter 1), if two components of the carbonate chemistry are known, all the other components can be calculated for seawater with typical nutrient concentrations at given temperature, salinity, and pressure. One of the possible pairs is of particular interest because both components can be measured with precision, accuracy, and are conservative in the sense that their concentrations do not change with temperature or pressure. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is the sum of all dissolved inorganic carbon species while total alkalinity (AT) equals € [HCO3 − ] + 2 € [CO3 2− ] + € [B(OH)4 − ] + € [OH− ] - [H+] + minor components, and refl ects the excess of proton acceptors over proton donors with respect to a zero level of protons (see chapter 1 for a detailed defi nition). AT is determined by the titration of seawater with a strong acid and thus can also be regarded as a measure of the buffering capacity. Any changes in any single component of the carbonate system will lead to changes in several, if not all, other components. In other words, it is not possible to vary a single component of the carbonate system while keeping all other components constant. This interdependency in the carbonate system is important to consider when performing CO2 perturbation experiments. To adjust seawater to different p(CO2) levels, the carbonate system can be manipulated in various ways that usually involve changes in AT or DIC. The goal of this chapter is (1) to examine the benefi ts and drawbacks of various manipulation methods used to date and (2) to provide a simple software package to assist the design of perturbation experiments

    Signatures of unconventional pairing in near-vortex electronic structure of LiFeAs

    Full text link
    A major question in Fe-based superconductors remains the structure of the pairing, in particular whether it is of unconventional nature. The electronic structure near vortices can serve as a platform for phase-sensitive measurements to answer this question. By solving Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for LiFeAs, we calculate the energy-dependent local electronic structure near a vortex for different nodeless gap-structure possibilities. At low energies, the local density of states (LDOS) around a vortex is determined by the normal-state electronic structure. However, at energies closer to the gap value, the LDOS can distinguish an anisotropic from a conventional isotropic s-wave gap. We show within our self-consistent calculation that in addition, the local gap profile differs between a conventional and an unconventional pairing. We explain this through admixing of a secondary order parameter within Ginzburg-Landau theory. In-field scanning tunneling spectroscopy near vortices can therefore be used as a real-space probe of the gap structure

    Signaling pathways in osteogenesis and osteoclastogenesis: Lessons from cranial sutures and applications to regenerative medicine.

    Get PDF
    One of the simplest models for examining the interplay between bone formation and resorption is the junction between the cranial bones. Although only roughly a quarter of patients diagnosed with craniosynostosis have been linked to known genetic disturbances, the molecular mechanisms elucidated from these studies have provided basic knowledge of bone homeostasis. This work has translated to methods and advances in bone tissue engineering. In this review, we examine the current knowledge of cranial suture biology derived from human craniosynostosis syndromes and discuss its application to regenerative medicine