9,130 research outputs found

### Numerical solution of free-boundary problems in fluid mechanics. Part 3. Bubble deformation in an axisymmetric straining flow

We consider the deformation of a bubble in a uniaxial extensional flow for Reynolds numbers in the range 0.1 [less-than-or-eq, slant] R [less-than-or-eq, slant] 100. The computations show that the bubble bursts at a relatively early stage of deformation for R [gt-or-equal, slanted] O(10), never reaching the highly elongated shapes observed and predicted at lower Reynolds numbers. We also compute the deformation of the bubble under the assumption of potential flow, and conclude that the potential-flow solution provides a good approximation to the real flow in this case for R [gt-or-equal, slanted] O(100)

### Bubble shapes in steady axisymmetric flows at intermediate Reynolds number

The shape of a gas bubble which rises through a quiescent incompressible, Newtonian fluid at intermediate Reynolds numbers is considered. Exact numerical solutions for the velocity and pressure fields, as well as the bubble shape, are obtained using finite difference techniques and a numerically generated transformation to an orthogonal, boundary-fitted coordinate system. No restriction is placed on the allowable magnitude of deformation

### An experimental investigation of drop deformation and breakup in steady, two-dimensional linear flows

We consider the deformation and burst of small fluid droplets in steady linear, two-dimensional motions of a second immiscible fluid. Experiments using a computer-controlled, four-roll mill to investigate the effect of flow type are described, and the results compared with predictions of several available asymptotic deformation and burst theories, as well as numerical calculations. The comparison clarifies the range of validity of the theories, and demonstrates that they provide quite adequate predictions over a wide range of viscosity ratio, capillary number, and flow type

### Small-amplitude perturbations of shape for a nearly spherical bubble in an inviscid straining flow (steady shapes and oscillatory motion)

The method of domain perturbations is used to study the problem of a nearly spherical bubble in an inviscid, axisymmetric straining flow. Steady-state shapes and axisymmetric oscillatory motions are considered. The steady-state solutions suggest the existence of a limit point at a critical Weber number, beyond which no solution exists on the steady-state solution branch which includes the spherical equilibrium state in the absence of flow (e.g. the critical value of 1.73 is estimated from the third-order solution). In addition, the first-order steady-state shape exhibits a maximum radius at θ = 1/6π which clearly indicates the barrel-like shape that was found earlier via numerical finite-deformation theories for higher Weber numbers. The oscillatory motion of a nearly spherical bubble is considered in two different ways. First, a small perturbation to a spherical base state is studied with the ad hoc assumption that the steady-state shape is spherical for the complete Weber-number range of interest. This analysis shows that the frequency of oscillation decreases as Weber number increases, and that a spherical bubble shape is unstable if Weber number is larger than 4.62. Secondly, the correct steady-state shape up to O(W) is included to obtain a rigorous asymptotic formula for the frequency change at small Weber number. This asymptotic analysis also shows that the frequency decreases as Weber number increases; for example, in the case of the principal mode (n = 2), ω^2 = ω_0^0(1−0.31W), where ω_0 is the oscillation frequency of a bubble in a quiescent fluid

### Bubble dynamics in time-periodic straining flows

The dynamics and breakup of a bubble in an axisymmetric, time-periodic straining flow has been investigated via analysis of an approximate dynamic model and also by time-dependent numerical solutions of the full fluid mechanics problem. The analyses reveal that in the neighbourhood of a stable steady solution, an O(ϵ1/3) time-dependent change of bubble shape can be obtained from an O(ε) resonant forcing. Furthermore, the probability of bubble breakup at subcritical Weber numbers can be maximized by choosing an optimal forcing frequency for a fixed forcing amplitude

### Relaxation and breakup of an initially extended drop in an otherwise quiescent fluid

In this paper we examine some general features of the time-dependent dynamics of drop deformation and breakup at low Reynolds numbers. The first aspect of our study is a detailed numerical investigation of the ‘end-pinching’ behaviour reported in a previous experimental study. The numerics illustrate the effects of viscosity ratio and initial drop shape on the relaxation and/or breakup of highly elongated droplets in an otherwise quiescent fluid. In addition, the numerical procedure is used to study the simultaneous development of capillary-wave instabilities at the fluid-fluid interface of a very long, cylindrically shaped droplet with bulbous ends. Initially small disturbances evolve to finite amplitude and produce very regular drop breakup. The formation of satellite droplets, a nonlinear phenomenon, is also observed

### A spherical particle straddling a fluid/gas interface in an axisymmetric straining flow

Numerical solutions, obtained via the boundary-integral technique, are used to consider the effect of a linear axisymmetric straining flow on the existence of steady-state configurations in which a neutrally buoyant spherical particle straddles a gas–liquid interface. The problem is directly applicable to predictions of the stability of particle capture in flotation processes, and is also of interest in the context of contact angle and surface tension measurements. A primary goal of the present study is a determination of the critical capillary number, Ca_c, beyond which an initially captured particle is pulled from the interface by the flow, and the dependence of Ca_c on the equilibrium contact angle θ_c. We also present equilibrium configurations for a wide range of contact angles and subcritical capillary numbers

### Particle motion in Stokes flow near a plane fluid-fluid interface. Part 1. Slender body in a quiescent fluid

The present study examines the motion of a slender body in the presence of a plane fluid–fluid interface with an arbitrary viscosity ratio. The fluids are assumed to be at rest at infinity, and the particle is assumed to have an arbitrary orientation relative to the interface. The method of analysis is slender-body theory for Stokes flow using the fundamental solutions for singularities (i.e. Stokeslets and potential doublets) near a flat interface. We consider translation and rotation, each in three mutually orthogonal directions, thus determining the components of the hydrodynamic resistance tensors which relate the total hydrodynamic force and torque on the particle to its translational and angular velocities for a completely arbitrary translational and angular motion. To illustrate the application of these basic results, we calculate trajectories for a freely rotating particle under the action of an applied force either normal or parallel to a flat interface, which are relevant to particle sedimentation near a flat interface or to the processes of particle capture via drop or bubble flotation

### Motion of a sphere in the presence of a plane interface. Part 2. An exact solution in bipolar co-ordinates

A general solution for Stokes’ equation in bipolar co-ordinates is derived, and then applied to the arbitrary motion of a sphere in the presence of a plane fluid/fluid interface. The drag force and hydrodynamic torque on the sphere are then calculated for four specific motions of the sphere; namely, translation perpendicular and parallel to the interface and rotation about an axis which is perpendicular and parallel, respectively, to the interface. The most significant result of the present work is the comparison between these numerically exact solutions and the approximate solutions from part 1. The latter can be generalized to a variety of particle shapes, and it is thus important to assess their accuracy for this case of spherical particles where an exact solution can be obtained. In addition to comparisons with the approximate solutions, we also examine the predicted changes in the velocity, pressure and vorticity fields due to the presence of the plane interface. One particularly interesting feature of the solutions is the fact that the direction of rotation of a freely suspended sphere moving parallel to the interface can either be the same as for a sphere rolling along the interface (as might be intuitively expected), or opposite depending upon the location of the sphere centre and the ratio of viscosities for the two fluids

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