768 research outputs found

    Strong efficiency improvement of SOI-LEDs through carrier confinement

    Get PDF
    Contemporary silicon light-emitting diodes in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology suffer from poor efficiency compared to their bulk-silicon counterparts. In this letter, we present a new device structure where the carrier injection takes place through silicon slabs of only a few nanometer thick. Its external quantum efficiency of 1.4 • 10−4 at room temperature, with a spectrum peaking at 1130 nm, is almost two orders higher than reported thus far on SOI. The structure diminishes the dominant role of nonradiative recombination at the n+ and p+contacts, by confining the injected carriers in an SOI peninsula.\ud With this approach, a compact infrared light source can be fabricated using standard semiconductor processing steps.\u

    Political economy of the petroleum sector in Nigeria

    Get PDF
    The relatively slow pace of Nigeria's development has often been attributed to the phenomenon of the resource curse whereby the nature of the state as a"rentier"dilutes accountability for development and political actors are able to manipulate institutions to sustain poor governance. The impact of the political elite's resource-control and allocation of revenues on core democratic mechanisms is central to understand the obstacles to development and governance failure. Given that problems of petroleum sector governance are extremely entrenched in Nigeria, the key question is whether and how it is possible to get out of a poor equilibrium after fifty years of oil production. This paper uses a political economy perspective to analyze the governance weaknesses along the petroleum sector value chain and attempts to establish the links between challenges in sector regulation and the following major political and economic attributes: (i) strong executive control on petroleum governance in a political environment of weak checks and balances; (ii) regulatory and operating roles bundled into one institution, thereby creating conflict of interest; and (iii) manipulation of elections and political appointments. The restoration of democratic government has helped improve transparency and management of oil revenue and reforms at the federal level and proposed reforms of the petroleum sector hold much promise. At the same time, the judiciary has started to restore confidence that it will serve as a check and balance on the executive and the electoral process. Yet, these reforms are fragile and need to be deepened and institutionalized. They must be addressed not as purely technocratic matters but as issues of political economy and vested interests that must, through regulation and reform, be aligned with the public interest and a vision of Nigerian development.National Governance,Environmental Economics&Policies,Oil Refining&Gas Industry,Energy Production and Transportation,Public Sector Corruption&Anticorruption Measures

    An ultrafast 1 x M all-optical WDM packet-switched router based on the PPM header address

    Get PDF
    This paper presents an all-optical 1 x M WDM router architecture for packet routing at multiple wavelengths simultaneously, with no wavelength conversion modules. The packet header address adopted is based on the pulse position modulation (PPM) format, thus enabling the use of only a singlebitwise optical AND gate for fast header address correlation. It offers multicast as well as broadcast capabilities. It is shown that a high speed packet routing at 160 Gb/s can be achieved with a low channel crosstalk (CXT) of ~ -27 dB at a channel spacing of greater than 0.4 THz and a demultiplexer bandwidth of 500 GHz

    Visible light emission from reverse-biased silicon nanometer-scale diode-antifuses

    Get PDF
    Silicon nanometer-scale diodes have been fabricated to emit light in the visible range at low power consumption. Such structures are candidates for emitter elements in Si-based optical interconnect schemes. Spectral measurements of Electroluminescence (EL) on the reverse-biased nanometer-scale diodes brought into breakdown have been carried out over the photon energy range of 1.4-2.8 eV. Previously proposed mechanisms for avalanche emission from conventional silicon p-n junctions are discussed in order to understand the origin of the emission. Also the stability of the diodes has been tested. Results indicate that our nanometer-scale diodes are basically high quality devices. Furthermore due to the nanometer-scale dimensions, very high electrical fields and current densities are possible at low power consumption. This makes these diodes an excellent candidate to be utilized as a light source in Si-based sensors and actuator application

    Multi-band carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for bandlimited visible light communications systems

    Get PDF
    Visible light communications is a technology with enormous potential for a wide range of applications within next generation transmission and broadcasting technologies. VLC offers simultaneous illumination and data communications by intensity modulating the optical power emitted by LEDs operating in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum (~370-780 nm). The major challenge in VLC systems to date has been in improving transmission speeds, considering the low bandwidths available with commercial LED devices. Thus, to improve the spectral usage, the research community has increasingly turned to advanced modulation formats such as orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing. In this article we introduce a new modulation scheme into the VLC domain; multiband carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation (m-CAP) and describe in detail its performance within the context of bandlimited systems

    Retrieval of material properties of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides from magnetoexciton energy spectra

    Full text link
    Reduced exciton mass, polarizability, and dielectric constant of the surrounding medium are essential properties for semiconduction materials, and they can be extracted recently from the magnetoexciton energies. However, the acceptable accuracy of the previously suggested method requires very high magnetic intensity. Therefore, in the present paper, we propose an alternative method of extracting these material properties from recently available experimental magnetoexciton s-state energies in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). The method is based on the high sensitivity of exciton energies to the material parameters in the Rytova-Keldysh model. It allows us to vary the considered material parameters to get the best fit of the theoretical calculation to the experimental exciton energies for the 1s1s, 2s2s, and 3s3s states. This procedure gives values of the exciton reduced mass and 2D polarizability. Then, the experimental magnetoexciton spectra compared to the theoretical calculation gives also the average dielectric constant. Concrete applications are presented only for monolayers WSe2_2 and WS2_2 from the recently available experimental data. However, the presented approach is universal and can be applied to other monolayer TMDCs. The mentioned fitting procedure requires a fast and effective method of solving the Schr\"{o}dinger of an exciton in monolayer TMDCs with a magnetic field. Therefore, we also develop such a method in this study for highly accurate magnetoexciton energies.Comment: 8 pages, 4 figures, 4 table


    Get PDF
    Abstract. The present paper is devoted to the construction of monotone difference second-order schemes for local approximation on non-uniform grids in space for 2D quasi-linear parabolic convection–diffusion equation. Two-sided estimates of the difference solution are found and an important a priori estimate in a uniform norm C is proved.Настоящая работа посвящена построению монотонных разностных схем второго порядка локальной аппроксимации на неравномерных сетках по пространству для двумерного квазилинейного параболического уравнения конвекции–диффузии. Устанавливаются двусторонние оценки разностного решения и доказана важная априорная оценка в равномерной норме С. 

    Elevated sea temperature combined with dietary methionine levels affect feed intake and appetite-related neuropeptide expression in the brains of juvenile cobia (Rachycentron canadum)

    Get PDF
    This study aimed to determine the impact of elevated temperature combined with different levels of dietary methionine concentrations on feed intake (FI) and brain expression of selected neuropeptides and one receptor involved in appetite control in juvenile cobia (approximately 3.7 g body weight). The genes studies were neuropeptide y, npy; agouti-related protein, agrp; cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, cart; cholecystokinin, cck and melanocortin 4 receptor; mc4r. The cobia were reared at typical sea water temperature in Vietnam (30 degrees C) and elevated temperature (34 degrees C; selected as one of the predicted scenarios of climate change). The fish were fed diets with different levels of methionine: deficient (M9; 9.1 g/kg), sufficient (M12; 12.8 g/kg) and surplus (M16, 16.8 g/kg) for 6 weeks (triplicate tanks per treatment). Both dietary methionine concentration and temperature affected FI in cobia. Dietary methionine deficiency (i.e., M9) and elevated temperature reduced FI in cobia. Temperature significantly influenced the mRNA expression of agrp, cart, cck and mc4r. Expression of the orexigenic neuropeptide npy was consistently higher before the meal than after the meal for all diets and at both temperatures. At 30 degrees C, prefeeding levels of npy correlated with both increased methionine levels and FI. The interaction between dietary methionine and temperature on the levels of brain npy expression was significant (P<0.05). There was higher brain expression of agrp, cart and cck in cobia at 34 degrees C than in fish at 30 degrees C, which was correlated with a lower FI. In conclusion, both feeding, temperature and/or dietary methionine levels affected the brain expression of npy and agrp, cart, cck and mc4r. This suggests that these neuropeptides as well as the mc4r receptor are actively involved in adjusting feed intake to compensate for changing energetic demands, as well as metabolic adjustments due to the variable availability of methionine at elevated temperature.LA/P/0101/2020; QZA-0485 SRV-13/0010info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Разностные схемы для квазилинейных параболических уравнений со смешанными производными

    Get PDF
    The present paper is devoted to constructing second-order monotone difference schemes for two-dimensional quasi-linear parabolic equation with mixed derivatives. Two-sided estimates of the solution of specific difference schemes for the original problem are obtained, which are fully consistent with similar estimates of the solution of the differential problem, and the a priori estimate in the uniform norm of C is proved. The estimates obtained are used to prove the convergence of difference schemes in the grid norm of L2.Настоящая работа посвящена построению монотонных разностных схем второго порядка точности для двумерного квазилинейного параболического уравнения со смешанными производными. Получены двусторонние оценки решения конкретных разностных схем для исходной задачи, которые полностью согласованные с аналогичными оценками решения дифференциальной задачи, а также доказана важная априорная оценка в равномерной норме C. Полученные оценки применяются для доказательства сходимости разностных схем в сеточной норме L2