29 research outputs found

    Evidence of potential establishment of pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha in Scotland.

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    In spring 2022, pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha smolts were recorded in the UK. Fish were caught in the Rivers Thurso and Oykel in Scotland between 13 and 17 March. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first observation of O. gorbuscha smolts in Europe outside the Scandinavian and Kola peninsulas, including other tributaries of the White and Barents Seas. It also provides evidence of successful spawning in 2021 and completion of the freshwater phase of the life cycle, and indicates the possibility for potential establishment of an O. gorbuscha population in Great Britain

    Systematic variation in food web body-size structure linked to external subsidies.

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    The relationship between body mass (M) and size class abundance (N) depicts patterns of community structure and energy flow through food webs. While the general assumption is that M and N scale linearly (on log-log axes), nonlinearity is regularly observed in natural systems, and is theorized to be driven by nonlinear scaling of trophic level (TL) with M resulting in the rapid transfer of energy to consumers in certain size classes. We tested this hypothesis with data from 31 stream food webs. We predicted that allochthonous subsidies higher in the web results in nonlinear M-TL relationships and systematic abundance peaks in macroinvertebrate and fish size classes (latter containing salmonids), that exploit terrestrial plant material and terrestrial invertebrates, respectively. Indeed, both M-N and M-TL significantly deviated from linear relationships and the observed curvature in M-TL scaling was inversely related to that observed in M-N relationships. Systemic peaks in M-N, and troughs in M-TL occurred in size classes dominated by generalist invertebrates, and brown trout. Our study reveals how allochthonous resources entering high in the web systematically shape community size structure and demonstrates the relevance of a generalized metabolic scaling model for understanding patterns of energy transfer in energetically 'open' food webs

    Crystallographic Tomography and Molecular Modelling of Structured Organic Polycrystalline Powders

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    A fundamental understanding of the behaviour of polycrystalline materials, including pharmaceuticals, is vital for control of their physicochemical and crystalline properties, which in turn has the potential to improve drug product development for example. In this work, attenuation X-ray computed tomography (CT) and diffraction contrast tomography (DCT) are combined with molecular modelling to understand the powder packing behaviour and crystal interactions of the organic cubic compound hexamine (hexamethylenetetramine). It is the first application of DCT to polycrystalline organic materials. The crystal morphology is predicted through synthonic modelling, with fully 3D-resolved confirmation of the crystallography of the external {110} facets, edges and corner directions by DCT. Analysis of the powder-bed reveals agglomerate structures and orientational texture, with its chemical origins energetically predicted to be face-to-face in accordance with the experimental data. Finally, measurements of crystal & crystallite interactions provide evidence for different mechanisms of powder bed agglomeration

    Phenomenology and physical origin of shear-localization and shear-banding in complex fluids

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    We review and compare the phenomenological aspects and physical origin of shear-localization and shear-banding in various material types, namely emulsions, suspensions, colloids, granular materials and micellar systems. It appears that shear-banding, which must be distinguished from the simple effect of coexisting static-flowing regions in yield stress fluids, occurs in the form of a progressive evolution of the local viscosity towards two significantly different values in two adjoining regions of the fluids in which the stress takes slightly different values. This suggests that from a global point of view shear-banding in these systems has a common physical origin: two physical phenomena (for example, in colloids, destructuration due to flow and restructuration due to aging) are in competition and, depending on the flow conditions, one of them becomes dominant and makes the system evolve in a specific direction.Comment: The original publication is available at http://www.springerlink.co

    Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS)

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    The combination of modern interventional and preventive medicine has led to an epidemic of ageing. While this phenomenon is a positive consequence of an improved lifestyle and achievements in a society, the longer life expectancy is often accompanied by decline in quality of life due to musculoskeletal pain and disability. The Aarhus Regenerative Orthopaedics Symposium (AROS) 2015 was motivated by the need to address regenerative challenges in an ageing population by engaging clinicians, basic scientists, and engineers. In this position paper, we review our contemporary understanding of societal, patient-related, and basic science-related challenges in order to provide a reasoned roadmap for the future to deal with this compelling and urgent healthcare problem

    Bending the rules: exploitation of allochthonous resources by a top-predator modifies size-abundance scaling in stream food webs

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    Body mass–abundance (M‐N) allometries provide a key measure of community structure, and deviations from scaling predictions could reveal how cross‐ecosystem subsidies alter food webs. For 31 streams across the UK, we tested the hypothesis that linear log‐log M‐N scaling is shallower than that predicted by allometric scaling theory when top predators have access to allochthonous prey. These streams all contained a common and widespread top predator (brown trout) that regularly feeds on terrestrial prey and, as hypothesised, deviations from predicted scaling increased with its dominance of the fish assemblage. Our study identifies a key beneficiary of cross‐ecosystem subsidies at the top of stream food webs and elucidates how these inputs can reshape the size‐structure of these ‘open’ systems