868 research outputs found

    Atrial fibrillation is associated with reduced brain volume and cognitive function independent of cerebral infarcts.

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    To access publisher's full text version of this article, please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field or click on the hyperlink at the top of the page marked Files. This article is open access.Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been associated with cognitive decline independent of stroke, suggesting additional effects of AF on the brain. We aimed to assess the association between AF and brain function and structure in a general elderly population.This is a cross-sectional analysis of 4251 nondemented participants (mean age, 76 ± 5 years) in the population-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. Medical record data were collected for the presence, subtype, and time from first diagnosis of AF; 330 participants had AF. Brain volume measurements, adjusted for intracranial volume, and presence of cerebral infarcts were determined with magnetic resonance imaging. Memory, speed of processing, and executive function composites were calculated from a cognitive test battery. In a multivariable linear regression model, adjustments were made for demographic factors, cardiovascular risk factors, and cerebral infarcts.Participants with AF had lower total brain volume compared with those without AF (P<0.001). The association was stronger with persistent/permanent than paroxysmal AF and with increased time from the first diagnosis of the disease. Of the brain tissue volumes, AF was associated with lower volume of gray and white matter hyperintensities (P<0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively), but not of white matter hyperintensities (P = 0.49). Participants with AF scored lower on tests of memory.AF is associated with smaller brain volume, and the association is stronger with increasing burden of the arrhythmia. These findings suggest that AF has a cumulative negative effect on the brain independent of cerebral infarcts.Landspitali National University Hospital of Iceland Science Fund Helga Jonsdottir and Sigvaldi Kristjansson Memorial Fund National Institutes of Health/N01-AG-1-2100 National Institute on Aging Intramural Research Program Icelandic Heart Association Althingi (the Icelandic Parliament

    Similar decline in mortality rate of older persons with and without type 2 diabetes between 1993 and 2004 the Icelandic population-based Reykjavik and AGES-Reykjavik cohort studies.

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    To access publisher's full text version of this article, please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field or click on the hyperlink at the top of the page marked Files. This article is open access.A decline in mortality rates due to cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality has led to increased life expectancy in the Western world in recent decades. At the same time, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, a disease associated with a twofold excess risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality, has been increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the secular trend of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates in two population-based cohorts of older persons, with and without type 2 diabetes, examined 11 years apart.1506 participants (42% men) from the population-based Reykjavik Study, examined during 1991-1996 (median 1993), mean age 75.0 years, and 4814 participants (43% men) from the AGES-Reykjavik Study, examined during 2002-2006 (median 2004), mean age 77.2 years, age range in both cohorts 70-87 years. The main outcome measures were age-specific mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease and all causes, over two consecutive 5.7- and 5.3-year follow-up periods.A 32% decline in cardiovascular mortality rate and a 19% decline in all-cause mortality rate were observed between 1993 and 2004. The decline was greater in those with type 2 diabetes, as illustrated by the decline in the adjusted hazard ratio of cardiovascular mortality in individuals with diabetes compared to those without diabetes, from 1.88 (95% CI 1.24-2.85) in 1993 to 1.46 (95% CI 1.11-1.91) in 2004. We also observed a concurrent decrease in major cardiovascular risk factors in both those with and without diabetes. A higher proportion of persons with diabetes received glucose-lowering, hypertensive and lipid-lowering medication in 2004.A decline in cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates was observed in older persons during the period 1993-2004, in both those with and without type 2 diabetes. This decline may be partly explained by improvements in cardiovascular risk factors and medical treatment over the period studied. However, type 2 diabetes still persists as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.National Institute of Health/N01-AG-1-2100 NIA Intramural Research Program Icelandic Heart Association (Hjartavernd) Icelandic Parliament (Althingi

    Effects of statin medication on mortality risk associated with type 2 diabetes in older persons: the population-based AGES-Reykjavik Study

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    To access publisher full text version of this article. Please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field.OBJECTIVE: To examine if the beneficial effect of statin medication on mortality seen in randomised clinical trials of type 2 diabetes applies equally to observational studies in the general population of older people. DESIGN: A prospective, population-based cohort study. SETTING: Reykjavik, Iceland. PARTICIPANTS: 5152 men and women from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, mean age 77 years, range of 66-96 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Cardiovascular and all-cause mortalities and the RR of dying according to statin use and history of coronary heart disease (CHD) in persons with type 2 diabetes and those without diabetes with a median follow-up time of 5.3 years, until end of 2009. RESULTS: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes was 12.4% of which 35% used statins. Statin use was associated with a 50% (95% CI 8% to 72%) lower cardiovascular mortality and 53% (29% to 68%) lower all-cause mortalities in persons with diabetes. For those without diabetes, statin use was associated with a 16% (-24% to 43%) lower cardiovascular and 30% (11% to 46%) lower all-cause mortalities. Persons with diabetes using statins had a comparable risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality to that of the general population without diabetes. The effect was independent of the level of glycaemic control. CONCLUSION: This observational study lends important support to existing data from randomised clinical trials. These data suggest that in the general population of older people with diabetes, statin medication markedly reduces the excess cardiovascular and all-cause mortality risk, irrespective of the presence or absence of coronary heart disease or glucose-lowering medication

    Association between arterial stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Arterial stiffness may be a cause of cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment. We therefore performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies on the association between stiffness, cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment. For the associations between stiffness (i.e. carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), brachial-ankle PVVV (baPWV), carotid stiffness and pulse pressure) on the one hand and cerebral small vessel disease and cognitive impairment on the other, we identified 23 (n = 15,666/20 cross-sectional; 1 longitudinal; 2 combined cross-sectional/longitudinal) and 41 studies (n= 57,671/26 cross-sectional; 11 longitudinal; 4 combined cross-sectional/longitudinal), respectively. Pooled analyses of cross-sectional studies showed that greater stiffness was associated with markers of cerebral small vessel disease with odds ratios, per +1 SD, of 1.29-1.32 (

    Dynamic relationships between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance over 20 years of adulthood

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    Background. Bidirectional longitudinal relationships between depression and diabetes have been observed, but the dominant direction of their temporal relationships remains controversial. Methods. The random-intercept cross-lagged panel model decomposes observed variables into a latent intercept representing the traits, and occasion-specific latent ‘state’ variables. This permits correlations to be assessed between the traits, while longitudinal ‘cross-lagged’ associations and cross-sectional correlations can be assessed between occasion-specific latent variables. We examined dynamic relationships between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance across five visits over 20 years of adulthood in the population-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Possible differences based on population group (Black v. White participants), sex and years of education were tested. Depressive symptoms and insulin resistance were quantified using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale and the homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), respectively. Results. Among 4044 participants (baseline mean age 34.9 ± 3.7 years, 53% women, 51% Black participants), HOMA-IR and CES-D traits were weakly correlated (r = 0.081, p = 0.002). Some occasion-specific correlations, but no cross-lagged associations were observed overall. Longitudinal dynamics of these relationships differed by population groups such that HOMAIR at age 50 was associated with CES-D score at age 55 (β = 0.076, p = 0.038) in White participants only. Longitudinal dynamics were consistent between sexes and based on education. Conclusions. The relationship between depressive symptoms and insulin resistance was best characterized by weak correlations between occasion-specific states and enduring traits, with weak evidence that insulin resistance might be temporally associated with subsequent depressive symptoms among White participants later in adulthood.publishedVersio

    A poor appetite or ability to eat and its association with physical function amongst community-dwelling older adults: age, gene/environment susceptibility-Reykjavik study

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    To access publisher's full text version of this article, please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links field or click on the hyperlink at the top of the page marked DownloadA poor appetite or ability to eat and its association with physical function have not been explored considerably amongst community-dwelling older adults. The current study examined whether having an illness or physical condition affecting one's appetite or ability to eat is associated with body composition, muscle strength, or physical function amongst community-dwelling older adults. This is a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data from the age, gene/environment susceptibility-Reykjavik study (n = 5764). Illnesses or physical conditions affecting one's appetite or ability to eat, activities of daily living, current level of physical activity, and smoking habits were assessed with a questionnaire. Fat mass, fat-free mass, body mass index, knee extension strength, and grip strength were measured, and the 6-m walk test and timed up-and-go test were administered. Individuals who reported illnesses or physical conditions affecting their appetite or ability to eat were considered to have a poor appetite. The associations of appetite or the ability to eat with body composition and physical function were analysed with stepwise linear regression models. A total of 804 (14%) individuals reported having conditions affecting their appetite or ability to eat and had a significantly lower fat-free mass and body mass index, less grip strength, and poorer physical function than did those without any conditions affecting their appetite or ability to eat. Although the factors reported to affect one's appetite or ability to eat are seldom considered severe, their strong associations with physical function suggest that any condition affecting one's appetite or ability to eat requires attention.European Horizon 2020 PROMISS Project "PRevention Of Malnutrition In Senior Subjects in the EU

    Glycemic status and brain injury in older individuals: the age gene/environment susceptibility-Reykjavik study

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    To access publisher full text version of this article. Please click on the hyperlink in Additional Links fieldOBJECTIVE: To examine the association of glycemic status to magnetic resonance imaging indicators of brain pathological changes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This was a cross-sectional, population-based study of 4,415 men and women without dementia (mean age 76 years) participating in the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. Glycemic status groups included the following: type 2 diabetes (self-report of diabetes, use of diabetes medications, or fasting blood glucose > or =7.0 mmol/l [11.1%]); impaired fasting glucose (IFG) (fasting blood glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l [36.2%]); and normoglycemic (52.7%). Outcomes were total brain volume, white and gray matter volume, white matter lesion (WML) volume, and presence of cerebral infarcts. RESULTS: After adjustment for demographic and cardiovascular risk factors, participants with type 2 diabetes had significantly lower total brain volume (72.2 vs. 71.5%; P < 0.001) and lower gray and white matter volumes (45.1 vs. 44.9%, P < 0.01 and 25.7 vs. 25.3%, P < 0.001, respectively) and were more likely to have single (odds ratio 1.45 [95% CI 1.14-1.85]) or multiple (2.27 [1.60-3.23]) cerebral infarcts compared with normoglycemic participants. Longer duration of type 2 diabetes was associated with lower total brain volume and gray and white matter volume, higher WML volume (all P(trend) < 0.05), and a greater likelihood of single and multiple cerebral infarcts (all P(trend) < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Type 2 diabetic participants have more pronounced brain atrophy and are more likely to have cerebral infarcts. Duration of type 2 diabetes is associated with brain changes, suggesting that type 2 diabetes has a cumulative effect on the brain
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