7,699 research outputs found

    Remote sensing of vigor loss in conifers due to dwarf mistletoe

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    The initial operation of a multiband/multidate tower-tramway test site in northeastern Minnesota for the development of specifications for subsequent multiband aerial photography of more extensive study areas was completed. Multiband/multidate configurations suggested by the tower-tramway studies were and will be flown with local equipment over the Togo test site. This site was photographed by the NASA RB57F aircraft in August and September 1971. It appears that, of all the film/filter combinations attempted to date (including optical recombining of several spectral band images via photo enhancement techniques), Ektachrome infrared film with a Wratten 12 filter is the best for detecting dwarf mistletoe, and other tree diseases as well. Using this film/filter combination, infection centers are easily detectable even on the smallest photo scale (1:100,000) obtained on the Togo site

    Discovery of Par 1802 as a Low-Mass, Pre-Main-Sequence Eclipsing Binary in the Orion Star-Forming Region

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    We report the discovery of a pre-main-sequence, low-mass, double-lined, spectroscopic, eclipsing binary in the Orion star-forming region. We present our observations including radial velocities derived from optical high-resolution spectroscopy, and present an orbit solution that permits the determination of precise empirical masses for both components of the system. We measure that Par 1802 is composed of two equal mass (0.39+-0.03, 0.40+-0.03 Msun) stars in a circular, 4.7 day orbit. There is strong evidence, such as the system exhibiting strong Li lines and a center-of-mass velocity consistent with cluster membership, that this system is a member of the Orion star-forming region and quite possibly the Orion Nebula Cluster, and therefore has an age of only a few million years. As there are currently only a few empirical mass and radius measurements for low-mass, PMS stars, this system presents an interesting test for the predictions of current theoretical models of pre-main sequence stellar evolution.Comment: 21 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables; Fig 2 caption edite

    Endothelial HO-1 induction by model TG-rich lipoproteins is regulated through a NOX4-Nrf2 pathway

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    Circulating levels of chylomicron remnants (CMRs) increase postprandially and their composition directly reflects dietary lipid intake. These TG-rich lipoproteins likely contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction, albeit via unknown mechanisms. Here, we investigated how the FA composition of CMRs influences their actions on human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) by comparing the effects of model CMRs—artificial TG-rich CMR-like particles (A-CRLPs)—containing TGs extracted from fish, DHA-rich algal, corn, or palm oils. HAECs responded with distinct transcriptional programs according to A-CRLP TG content and oxidation status, with genes involved in antioxidant defense and cytoprotection most prominently affected by n-3 PUFA-containing A-CRLPs. These particles were significantly more efficacious inducers of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) than n-6 PUFA corn or saturated FA-rich palm CRLPs. Mechanistically, HO-1 induction by all CRLPs requires NADPH oxidase 4, with PUFA-containing particles additionally dependent upon mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. Activation of both p38 MAPK and PPARβ/δ culminates in increased nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) expression/nuclear translocation and HO-1 induction. These studies define new molecular pathways coupling endothelial cell activation by model CMRs with adaptive regulation of Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression and may represent key mechanisms through which dietary FAs differentially impact progression of endothelial dysfunction

    Line Broadening in Field Metal-poor Red Giant and Red Horizontal Branch Stars

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    We report 349 radial velocities for 45 metal-poor field red giant and red horizontal branch stars. We have have identified one new spectroscopic binary, HD 4306, and one possible such system, HD 184711. We also report 57 radial velocities for 11 of the 91 stars reported on previously by Carney et al. (2003). As was found in the previous study, radial velocity "jitter" is present in many of the most luminous stars. Excluding stars showing spectroscopic binary orbital motion, all 7 of the red giants with M(V) <= -2.0 display jitter, as well as 3 of the 14 stars with -2.0 <= M(V) <= -1.4. We have also measured line broadening in all of the new spectra, using synthetic spectra as templates. The most luminous red giants show significant line broadening, as do many of the red horizontal branch stars, and we discuss briefly possible causes.Comment: To appear in the Astronomical Journa

    Acoustic tests of duct-burning turbofan jet noise simulation

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    The results of a static acoustic and aerodynamic performance, model-scale test program on coannular unsuppressed and multielement fan suppressed nozzle configurations are summarized. The results of the static acoustic tests show a very beneficial interaction effect. When the measured noise levels were compared with the predicted noise levels of two independent but equivalent conical nozzle flow streams, noise reductions for the unsuppressed coannular nozzles were of the order of 10 PNdB; high levels of suppression (8 PNdB) were still maintained even when only a small amount of core stream flow was used. The multielement fan suppressed coannular nozzle tests showed 15 PNdB noise reductions and up to 18 PNdB noise reductions when a treated ejector was added. The static aerodynamic performance tests showed that the unsuppressed coannular plug nozzles obtained gross thrust coefficients of 0.972, with 1.2 to 1.7 percent lower levels for the multielement fan-suppressed coannular flow nozzles. For the first time anywhere, laser velocimeter velocity profile measurements were made on these types of nozzle configurations and with supersonic heated flow conditions. Measurements showed that a very rapid decay in the mean velocity occurs for the nozzle tested

    Acoustic tests of duct-burning turbofan jet noise simulation: Comprehensive data report. Volume 2: Model design and aerodynamic test results

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    The selection procedure is described which was used to arrive at the configurations tested, and the performance characteristics of the test nozzles are given

    Particle Dark Energy

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    We explore the physics of a gas of particles interacting with a condensate that spontaneously breaks Lorentz invariance. The equation of state of this gas varies from 1/3 to less than -1 and can lead to the observed cosmic acceleration. The particles are always stable. In our particular class of models these particles are fermions with a chiral coupling to the condensate. They may behave as relativistic matter at early times, produce a brief period where they dominate the expansion with w<0 today, and behave as matter at late time. There are no small parameters in our models, which generically lead to dark energy clustering and, depending on the choice of parameters, smoothing of small scale power.Comment: 8 pages, 5 figures; minor update with added refs; version appearing in Phys. Rev.
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