811 research outputs found

    PAYING FOR A PUBLIC GOOD IN MONEY OR TIME: IS THERE A FUNDAMENTAL DIFFERENCE? AN INVESTIGATION OF CONSUMERS' PREFERENCES FOR COMMUNITY-WIDE RECYCLING

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    This paper investigates consumers willingness to pay money (WTPM) and willingness to pay time (WTPT) for an improvement in a public good. Joint estimation of WTPM, WTPT, and the value of time, in the context of an increase in community-wide recycling, suggests that consumers have a higher money-equivalent WTP when they are directly involved in the provision of the public good, through their time effort. We conclude that the "payment currency" matters. This may have important implications for the design and promotion of public programs aimed at producing improved public good provision.Public Economics,

    Estimating the Implicit Value of Crop Stubble as a Barrier to Technology Adoption in Morocco

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    For mixed cereal-livestock farmers, cereal production provides a bundle of goods. Grain is consumed by the household or sold at market, and crop residues are used as livestock feed. The straw component of crop residue can be bought and sold at market and therefore has a well-established local market price. Crop stubble, the portion of the crop residue left on the ground, is generally not traded and therefore has no market price. Some agricultural technologies require farmers to forgo using crop stubble as feed, and cultivation of high value crops entails sacrificing residue production altogether. In this paper we apply a structural econometric model to household data from Morocco to estimate the implicit value of crop stubble. We use a sample splitting technique to investigate differences in the value of this resource and find that it is significantly higher for smaller farmers, who therefore face an even larger barrier to technology adoption.Mixed cereal-livestock systems, Non-market valuation, Land use, Technology adoption, No-till, International Development, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, O33, Q12, Q24,

    Development Patterns and the Recreation Value of Amenities

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    Public open spaces around and within urban areas have been increasingly developed due to greater population pressures. My paper investigates if land around public open spaces is likely to get developed faster since households are attracted to the recreation value as well as the environmental amenities of the public open space. There has been inadequate attention in the literature to the influence of the different sources of value of open space on housing prices. While views of open space are certainly an important source of value to households, public open space is also valued because households enjoy recreation at the open space. Adopting the monocentric city model, simulations examine how the different sources of value of public open space influence the developed area, rent gradient and the development density of an urban area. The monocentric city model has residents competing for housing around a single central business district (CBD) while developers choose the density of development from the expected prices of the homes at that location in the city. Simulations of the closed city model result in equilibrium rent gradients for land and the housing, a utility level, and a city boundary. By referencing the monocentric city model with two-dimensional coordinates, Wu and Plantinga (2003) are able to more spatially explicitly examine the influence of amenities on the equilibrium state of the city. Amenities are shown to generate leap-frog development, influence the developed area of the city, the population density, rent gradients and location of different income groups. Although different shapes and areas of amenities are examined in their paper, there is no investigation of the proper proximity of these amenities to each other. Several small amenities dispersed far apart from each other in the city may result in less total amount of developed land than if there is only a single large amenity. Another reason that the proximity of amenities to each other matters is that the net benefits from recreation are influenced by the spatial arrangement of the amenities. Consumer´s surplus from recreation trips to the amenity is the net benefit of the amenity, with the price of a recreation trip including the travel cost to the amenity. The travel costs from recreation at amenities depend on how widely dispersed the amenities are in the city. While several amenities located widely throughout a city lower the travel costs of recreation, the city tends to diffuse more too resulting in a larger developed area. On the other hand, a single centrally located amenity contracts the city resulting in a smaller developed area although the travel costs of recreation rise slightly. Simulations from the model collect information on the aggregate amount of recreation trips, recreational net benefits, and the developed area. More localized benefits of amenities like nice views and cleaner air have a stronger influence on housing prices and development densities than the less localized benefits of amenities like recreation. If the travel costs for recreation are low, then only the localized benefits of amenities influence housing prices and development densities. However, if the demand for recreation and the travel costs to reach the amenity is high, the benefits of recreation have the potential to influence the housing prices and development densities in that area of the city. There are several potential solutions to the problem of recreation benefits of the amenities leading to the unwanted development of natural or agricultural land. The simplest solution is to regulate that no recreation take place at the amenity. Of course, the nice views and cleaner air may still draw development outward, and the enforcement of no recreation is necessary. Rather than prohibit recreation, raising user fees at recreation sites is a way to generate revenue for the city while simultaneously restraining sprawl. If the cost of travel to a recreation site is high, development is more likely near the site since households want the benefit of a trip without the high cost of travel to the site. If roads to the recreation site are improved to reduce the cost of travel, households will prefer to locate close to the central business district rather than the recreation site to reduce the cost of their daily commutes.Public Economics,

    Identifying Individual Discount Rates and Valuing Public Open Space with Stated Preference Models

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    An individual's rate of time preference is an important consideration for individuals deciding whether to support a public good since the benefits of a public good often come in the future. Our study finds individual discount rates from a contingent valuation method (CVM) question where the time frame of the payment schedule is varied across surveys. We find discount rates similar to the rates found in the recent revealed preference and experimental literature of around 30%. Our CVM question addresses the preservation of additional open space adjacent to a large regional park at the urban fringe of Portland, Oregon.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, H43, Q51, Q15,

    AN INVERSE DEMAND APPROACH TO RECREATION FISHING SITE CHOICE AND IMPLIED MARGINAL VALUES

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    An alternative methodology for determining marginal willingness to pay values for recreational fishing trips is developed based on inverse demand systems and the distance function. Our empirical application uses joint estimation of several species-specific site equations from a recreation fishing data set. Results are compared to a random utility model.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Total Economic Values of Increasing Gray Whale Populations: Results from a Contingent Valuation Survey of Visitors and Households

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    The consistency of an individual's willingness to pay (WTP) responses for increases in the quantity of an environmental public good (whale populations) is tested along three lines. First, we test whether WTP for 50% and 100% increases in whale populations are statistically different from zero. Second, we ask whether the incremental WTP from a 50% increase to a 100% increase is statistically significant. Finally, we test whether there is diminishing marginal valuation of the second 50% increment in gray whale populations. The paired t-tests on open-ended WTP responses supported all three sets of hypotheses. Both visitors and households provided WTP responses that were statistically different from zero and increased (but in a diminishing fashion) for the second increment in WTP. In this survey both visitors and households provided estimates of total economic value (including non-use or existence values) for large changes in wildlife/fishery resources that were consistent with consumer theory.Existence value, contingent valuation, gray whale, California, willingness to pay, Environmental Economics and Policy, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    Valuing a Beach Day with a Repeated Nested Logit Model of Participation, Site Choice, and Stochastic Time Value

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    Beach recreation values are often needed by policy-makers and resource managers to efficiently manage coastal resources, especially in popular coastal areas like Southern California. This article presents welfare values derived from random utility maximization-based recreation demand models that explain an individual’s decisions about whether or not to visit a beach and which beach to visit. The models utilize labor market decisions to reveal each individual’s opportunity cost of recreation time. The value of having access to the beach in San Diego County is estimated to be between 21and21 and 23 per day.Recreation demand, repeated nested logit, labor supply, opportunity cost of leisure, time, beach recreation., Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Q26, J22, Q51.,

    EMPIRICAL SPECIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR TWO-CONSTRAINT MODELS OF RECREATION DEMAND

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    Theoretical restrictions implied by the two-constraint recreation demand model are developed. The structure necessary to specify empirical models shows that most current models of recreation incorporate time in a manner inconsistent with theory. Results are applicable to all recreationists and are particularly useful to those with endogenous marginal values of time.Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,

    REVENUE RISK AND FISHERY CHOICE WITH LINEAR-EXPONENTIAL UTILITY: AN APPLICATION TO BERING SEA/ALEUTIAN ISLANDS TRAWL FISHERIES

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    A discrete choice model of 1991-96 trawl groundfish fishery participation in the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands region is developed and estimated. The model fits well, with strong risk and seasonal effects. Notably, the model uses routinely-collected data, suggesting this type of analysis can be a regular part of the management process.Resource /Energy Economics and Policy,
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