9 research outputs found

    Gene Expression Profiles in Relation to Tension and Dissociation in Borderline Personality Disorder

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    <div><p>The biological underpinnings of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and its psychopathology including states of aversive tension and dissociation is poorly understood. Our goal was to examine transcriptional changes associated with states of tension or dissociation within individual patients in a pilot study. Dissociation is not only a critical symptom of BPD but has also been associated with higher risk for self-mutilation and depression. We conducted a whole blood gene expression profile analysis using quantitative PCR in 31 female inpatients with BPD. For each individual, two samples were drawn during a state of high tension and dissociation, while two samples were drawn at non-tension states. There was no association between gene expression and tension states. However, we could show that Interleukin-6 was positively correlated to dissociation scores, whereas Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha isoforms, Mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 and 8, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha-2, Beta-arrestin-1 and 2, and Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein were negatively correlated to dissociation. Our data point to a potential association of dissociation levels with the expression of genes involved in immune system regulation as well as cellular signalling/second-messenger systems. Major limitations of the study are the the possibly heterogeneous cell proportions in whole blood and the heterogeneous medication.</p></div

    DSS total scores and tension sub-scores for tension and non-tension state.

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    <p>Scores are averages over the two observations in each state. The dashed line represents the patients and the two states of each patient.</p

    Change in body weight following SNI-surgery.

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    <p>Figure shows the percentage weight change in SNI rats compared to Day 0, from Day 0–7 in version I, where the greatest differences occur, and Day 0–28 in II. Data is presented as mean ± S.E.M. Groups and dosing details are presented in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0188113#pone.0188113.t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a>. For panels A-C statistical comparisons were made for each treatment group versus the vehicle treated group (C) using a repeated mixed model with a correlation model for “cage-mates” and Bonferroni post-tests; *P<0.05, **P<0.01, ***P<0.001. Statistical differences are not presented in the figure. Significantly lower body weight than vehicle treated group (C); (<b>A.I+II)</b> Control, vehicle and buprenorphine-groups. Group E, Bup., s.c., 72 hours; Day 5; ***, Day 7; **. Group G, Bup., p.o., 72 hours; Day 5; ***, Day 7; ***. (<b>B.I+II)</b> Control, vehicle, carprofen and lido/bupivacaine-groups. No statistical significant differences were recorded. (<b>C.I+II)</b> Control, vehicle and combined treatment groups. K–High Combination; Day 3; ***, Day 5; ***, Day 7; ***, Day 14; ***. L–Low combination; Day 5; ***, Day 7; ***. Following groups was statistically higher than the vehicle-treated group on day 1; Group E (*), K (*) and L (***).</p

    Welfare issues associated with the different treatment groups.

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    <p>Numbers of animals experiencing various welfare problems, with "2/30" meaning that 2 out of a total of 30 animals were affected. Groups and treatment dosages are presented in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0188113#pone.0188113.t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a>. Wound dehiscence; incision wounds at the operation site. Self-mutilation-like behaviour; minor wounds, swelling or erosions on the paw affected by the neuropathic injury. Clinically affected; presence of clinical signs like depression, weight loss exceeding 5%, piloerection, crouched stance, ataxia, decreased food intake or less active appearance.</p

    Effect of SNI procedure on food consumption compared to animal weight.

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    <p>The figure shows the amount of food-consumption per kg of animal (combined body weight of co-housed rat pairs) per 24 hours on Day 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28, and is presented as mean ± S.E.M. Groups and treatment doses are presented in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0188113#pone.0188113.t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a>. Multiple comparison was performed by two way Repeated Measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post-tests, and results are presented in the text.</p

    Development of mechanical allodynia in SNI rats.

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    <p>Panels A-C Measurements of mechanical allodynia by von Frey monofilaments on day 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, 28 post SNI procedure. Presented as median ± interquartile range of von Frey measurements. Groups and treatment doses are presented in <a href="http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0188113#pone.0188113.t001" target="_blank">Table 1</a><b>. (A)</b> Presenting treatment groups receiving buprenorphine alone or vehicle and the non-operated control group. (<b>B)</b> Presenting treatment groups receiving carprofen, lidocaine/bupivacaine or vehicle and the non-operated control group. (<b>C)</b> Presenting treatment groups receiving combined treatment or vehicle and the non-operated control.</p
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