32 research outputs found

    Transient situations in traffic flow: Modelling the Mexico City Cuernavaca Highway

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    In this paper a recent variable anticipation cellular automata model for single-lane traffic flow is extended to analyze the situation of free and congested flow in the Highway from Mexico City to Cuernavaca. This highway presents free flow in standard days; but in the returning day of long weekends or holidays it exhibits congested flow and in rush hours jamming appears. We illustrate how our CA model for traffic flow can deal appropriately with transient situations and can be used to search new alternatives that allow to improve the traffic flow in Mexican highways.Comment: Paper accepted to be published in the Proceedings of Second Mexican Meeting on Mathematical and Experimental Physics (September 2004), El Colegio Nacional, Mexico City, Mexic

    A stochastic cellular automaton model for traffic flow with multiple metastable states

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    A new stochastic cellular automaton (CA) model of traffic flow, which includes slow-to-start effects and a driver's perspective, is proposed by extending the Burgers CA and the Nagel-Schreckenberg CA model. The flow-density relation of this model shows multiple metastable branches near the transition density from free to congested traffic, which form a wide scattering area in the fundamental diagram. The stability of these branches and their velocity distributions are explicitly studied by numerical simulations.Comment: 11 pages, 20 figures, submitted for publicatio

    Disability, support and long-term social care of an elderly Spanish population, 2008-2009: an epidemiologic analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Though poorly known, relationships between disability, need of help (dependency) and use of social services are crucial aspects of public health. The objective of this study was to describe the links between disability, officially assessed dependency, and social service use by an industrial population, and identify areas of inequity. METHODS: We took advantage of a door-to-door survey conducted in the Cinco Villas district, Spain, in 2008–2009, which provided data on disability, morbidity, and service use among 1216 residents aged ≄50 years, and officially assessed dependency under the 2006 Dependency Act (OAD). Using logistic regression, we combined data collected at homes/residences on 625 disability screened-positive participants, and administrative information on degree of OAD and benefits at date of visit. RESULTS: Based on 163 disabled persons, the prevalence of residential/community-care users was 13.4% overall, with 6.0% being market-provided, 2.5% supported by the 2006 Act, and 4.9% supported by other public funds. Of 111 OAD applicants, 30 had been assigned an OAD degree; in 29 cases this was the highest OAD degree, with 12 receiving direct support for residential care and 17 receiving home care. Compared to unassessed dependency, the highest OAD degree was linked to residential care (OR and 95% CI) 12.13 (3.86–38.16), declared non-professional care 10.99 (1.28–94.53), and publicly-funded, non-professional care 26.30 (3.36–205.88). In contrast, 43 persons, 58% of the severely/extremely disabled, community-dwelling sample population, 81% of whom were homebound, including 10 persons with OAD but no implemented service plan, made no use of any service, and of these, 40% lacked a non-professional carer. CONCLUSIONS: Formal service use in the Cinco Villas district attained ratios observed for established welfare systems but the publicly-funded proportion was lower. The 2006 Act had a modest, albeit significant, impact on support for non-professional carers and residential care, coexisting with a high prevalence of non-use of social services by severely disabled persons

    Further studies on a hybrid cell-surface antigen associated with human chromosome 11 using a monoclonal antibody

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    A monoclonal antibody has been obtained that recognizes an antigen encoded by human chromosome 11. We present evidence that this monoclonal antibody recognizes the same or a similar antigenic activity as that previously called a 1 . Genetic information necessary for a 1 expression and recognition by the monoclonal antibody both map to 11p13 → 11pter. Mutants that have lost a 1 are no longer recognized by the monoclonal antibody. The macroglycolipid fraction of human erythrocyte membranes which contains the a 1 antigenic activity is able to convert antigen-negative Chinese hamster ovary cells into cells which are killed by the monoclonal antibody plus complement.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/45556/1/11188_2005_Article_BF01543049.pd

    Prevalence of and factors associated with homebound status among adults in urban and rural Spanish populations

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    BACKGROUND: There is a marked growth in the number of homebound older adults, due mainly to increased life expectancy. Although this group has special characteristics and needs, it has not been properly studied. This study thus aimed to measure the prevalence of homebound status in a community-dwelling population, and its association with both socio-demographic, medical and functional characteristics and the use of health care and social services. METHODS: We used instruments coming under the WHO International Classification of Functioning (ICF) framework to carry out a cross-sectional study on populations aged 50 years and over in the province of Zaragoza (Spain), covering a total of 1622 participants. Persons who reported severe or extreme difficulty in getting out of the house in the last 30 days were deemed to be homebound. We studied associations between homebound status and several relevant variables in a group of 790 subjects who tested positive to the WHODAS-12 disability screening tool. RESULTS: Prevalence of homebound status was 9.8 % (95 % CI: 8.4 to 11.3 %). Homebound participants tended to be older, female and display a lower educational level, a higher number of diseases, poorer cognition and a higher degree of disability. In fully adjusted models including disability as measured with the ICF-Checklist, the associated variables (odds ratios and [95 % confidence intervals]) were: female gender (3.75 [2.10–6.68]); urban population (2.36 [1.30–4.29]); WHODAS-12 disability (6.27 [2.56–15.40]); depressive symptoms (2.95 [1.86–4.68]); moderate pain (2.37 [1.30–4.31] and severe pain (3.03 [1.31–7.01]), as compared to the group with no/mild pain; hospital admissions in the previous 3 months (2.98 [1.25–7.11]); and diabetes (1.87 [1.03–3.41]). Adjustment for ICF-Checklist disability had a notable impact on most associations. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows that homebound status is a common problem in our setting, and that being disabled is its main determinant. Socio-demographic characteristics, barriers and chronic diseases can also be assumed to be playing a role in the onset of this condition, indicating the need for further research, including longitudinal studies on its incidence and associated factors

    The Helicobacter pylori Genome Project : insights into H. pylori population structure from analysis of a worldwide collection of complete genomes

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    Helicobacter pylori, a dominant member of the gastric microbiota, shares co-evolutionary history with humans. This has led to the development of genetically distinct H. pylori subpopulations associated with the geographic origin of the host and with differential gastric disease risk. Here, we provide insights into H. pylori population structure as a part of the Helicobacter pylori Genome Project (HpGP), a multi-disciplinary initiative aimed at elucidating H. pylori pathogenesis and identifying new therapeutic targets. We collected 1011 well-characterized clinical strains from 50 countries and generated high-quality genome sequences. We analysed core genome diversity and population structure of the HpGP dataset and 255 worldwide reference genomes to outline the ancestral contribution to Eurasian, African, and American populations. We found evidence of substantial contribution of population hpNorthAsia and subpopulation hspUral in Northern European H. pylori. The genomes of H. pylori isolated from northern and southern Indigenous Americans differed in that bacteria isolated in northern Indigenous communities were more similar to North Asian H. pylori while the southern had higher relatedness to hpEastAsia. Notably, we also found a highly clonal yet geographically dispersed North American subpopulation, which is negative for the cag pathogenicity island, and present in 7% of sequenced US genomes. We expect the HpGP dataset and the corresponding strains to become a major asset for H. pylori genomics