9,265 research outputs found

    Evolution, Explosion and Nucleosynthesis of Core Collapse Supernovae

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    We present a new set of presupernova evolutions and explosive yields of massive stars of initial solar composition (Y=0.285, Z=0.02) in the mass range 13-35 Msun. All the models have been computed with the latest version (4.97) of the FRANEC code that now includes a nuclear network extending from neutrons to Mo98. The explosive nucleosynthesis has been computed twice: a first one with an hydro code and a second one following the simpler radiation dominated shock approximation (RDA).Comment: 20 pages, 10 figures, 12 tables. Accepted for publication on Ap

    Presupernova evolution of accreting white dwarfs with rotation

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    We discuss the effects of rotation on the evolution of accreting carbon-oxygen white dwarfs, with the emphasis on possible consequences in Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) progenitors. Starting with a slowly rotating white dwarf, we simulate the accretion of matter and angular momentum from a quasi-Keplerian accretion disk. The role of the various rotationally induced hydrodynamic instabilities for the transport of angular momentum inside the white dwarf is investigated. We find that the dynamical shear instability is the most important one in the highly degenerate core. Our results imply that accreting white dwarfs rotate differentially throughout,with a shear rate close to the threshold value for the onset of the dynamical shear instability. As the latter depends on the temperature of the white dwarf, the thermal evolution of the white dwarf core is found to be relevant for the angular momentum redistribution. As found previously, significant rotation is shown to lead to carbon ignition masses well above 1.4 Msun. Our models suggest a wide range of white dwarf explosion masses, which could be responsible for some aspects of the diversity observed in SNe Ia. We analyze the potential role of the bar-mode and the r-mode instability in rapidly rotating white dwarfs, which may impose angular momentum loss by gravitational wave radiation. We discuss the consequences of the resulting spin-down for the fate of the white dwarf, and the possibility to detect the emitted gravitational waves at frequencies of 0.1 >... 1.0 Hz in nearby galaxies with LISA. Possible implications of fast and differentially rotating white dwarf cores for the flame propagation in exploding white dwarfs are also briefly discussed.Comment: 22 pages, 16 figures, Accepted to A&

    The spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

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    The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is an essential diagnostic diagram for stellar structure and evolution, which has now been in use for more than 100 years. Our spectroscopic Hertzsprung-Russell (sHR) diagram shows the inverse of the flux-mean gravity versus the effective temperature. Observed stars whose spectra have been quantitatively analyzed can be entered in this diagram without the knowledge of the stellar distance or absolute brightness. Observed stars can be as conveniently compared to stellar evolution calculations in the sHR diagram as in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. However, at the same time, our ordinate is proportional to the stellar mass-to-luminosity ratio, which can thus be directly determined. For intermediate- and low-mass star evolution at constant mass, we show that the shape of an evolutionary track in the sHR diagram is identical to that in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We also demonstrate that for hot stars, their stellar Eddington factor can be directly read off the sHR diagram. For stars near their Eddington limit, we argue that a version of the sHR diagram may be useful where the gravity is exchanged by the effective gravity. We discuss the advantages and limitations of the sHR diagram, and show that it can be fruitfully applied to Galactic stars, but also to stars with known distance, e.g., in the LMC or in galaxies beyond the Local Group.Comment: 9 pages, 8 figures, Astronomy and Astrophysics, in pres

    On the Collapsar Model of Long Gamma-Ray Bursts: Constraints from Cosmic Metallicity Evolution

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    We explore the consequences of new observational and theoretical evidence that long gamma-ray bursts prefer low metallicity environments. Using recently derived mass-metallicity correlations and the mass function from SDSS studies, and adopting an average cosmic metallicity evolution from \citet{kewley2005} and \citet{savaglio2005} we derive expressions for the the relative number of massive stars formed below a given fraction of solar metallicity, \epsilon, as function of redshift. We demonstrate that about 1/10th of all stars form with <0.1\epsilon < 0.1. Therefore, a picture where the majority of GRBs form with <0.1\epsilon < 0.1 is not inconsistent with an empirical global SN/GRB ratio of 1/1000. It implies that (1) GRB's peak at a significantly higher redshift than supernovae; (2) massive star evolution at low metallicity may be qualitatively different and; (3) the larger the low-metallicity bias of GRBs the less likely binary evolution channels can be significant GRB producers.Comment: 12 pages, 2 figures; accepted as ApJ Lette

    Recycling Pulsars: spins, masses and ages

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    Although the first millisecond pulsars (MSPs) were discovered 30 years ago we still do not understand all details of their formation process. Here, we present new results from Tauris, Langer & Kramer (2012) on the recycling scenario leading to radio MSPs with helium or carbon-oxygen white dwarf companions via evolution of low- and intermediate mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs, IMXBs). We discuss the location of the spin-up line in the (P,Pdot)-diagram and estimate the amount of accreted mass needed to obtain a given spin period and compare with observations. Finally, we constrain the true ages of observed recycled pulsars via calculated isochrones in the (P,Pdot)-diagram.Comment: Contributed talk, Proceedings of IAUS 291 "Neutron Stars and Pulsars: Challenges and Opportunities after 80 years", J. van Leeuwen (ed.); 4 pages, 2 figure