5,278 research outputs found

    Novel X-Ray Imaging Method for Evaluating Defect Evolution in Ceramic Tapes

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    Ceramic tape casting is critical to the electronics industry for manufacturing a wide range of components including piezoelectric actuators, MLC capacitors, and substrates for VLSI and LSI chips [1–3]. Recent regulatory changes, led by the Environmental Protection Agency concerning hazardous chemicals used in ceramic tape-casting, have renewed interest in the development of environmentally-friendly modifications to this process. In turn, this has increased interest in developing a better, fundamental understanding of how microstructural defects form and evolve during the sequence of processing steps associated with tape casting. In order to form more reliable electronic components, there is a need to develop a better, basic understanding of how to eliminate these defects by optimizing critical processing variables

    Seeds Buffering for Information Spreading Processes

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    Seeding strategies for influence maximization in social networks have been studied for more than a decade. They have mainly relied on the activation of all resources (seeds) simultaneously in the beginning; yet, it has been shown that sequential seeding strategies are commonly better. This research focuses on studying sequential seeding with buffering, which is an extension to basic sequential seeding concept. The proposed method avoids choosing nodes that will be activated through the natural diffusion process, which is leading to better use of the budget for activating seed nodes in the social influence process. This approach was compared with sequential seeding without buffering and single stage seeding. The results on both real and artificial social networks confirm that the buffer-based consecutive seeding is a good trade-off between the final coverage and the time to reach it. It performs significantly better than its rivals for a fixed budget. The gain is obtained by dynamic rankings and the ability to detect network areas with nodes that are not yet activated and have high potential of activating their neighbours.Comment: Jankowski, J., Br\'odka, P., Michalski, R., & Kazienko, P. (2017, September). Seeds Buffering for Information Spreading Processes. In International Conference on Social Informatics (pp. 628-641). Springe

    Patient-Reported Side Effects of Intradetrusor Botulinum Toxin Type A for Idiopathic Overactive Bladder Syndrome

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    Objective: The aim of the study was a prospective assessment of patient-reported side effects in an open-label study after intradetrusor botulinum toxin injections for idiopathic overactive bladder (OAB). Patients and Methods: Botulinum toxin A injection was performed in 56 patients with idiopathic OAB. Patients were followed up for 6 months concerning side effects and patients' satisfaction. Results: Different types of side effects were assessed such as dry mouth (19.6%), arm weakness (8.9%), eyelid weakness (8.9%), leg weakness (7.1%), torso weakness (5.4%), impaired vision (5.4%) and dysphagia (5.4%). In all cases, symptoms were mild and transient. Urological complications such as gross hematuria (17.9%), acute urinary retention (8.9%) and acute urinary tract infection (7.1%) were noticed. In all cases, acute urinary retention was transient and treated with temporary intermittent self-catheterization. There was no statistically significant correlation between dosage and observed side effects. Patients' satisfaction rate was high (71.4%). Conclusion: Intradetrusor injection of botulinum toxin was associated with a high rate of neurourological side effects. In general, side effects were transient, mild and did not require special treatment. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Base

    Compressibility of titanosilicate melts

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    The effect of composition on the relaxed adiabatic bulk modulus (K0) of a range of alkali- and alkaline earth-titanosilicate [X 2 n/n+ TiSiO5 (X=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba)] melts has been investigated. The relaxed bulk moduli of these melts have been measured using ultrasonic interferometric methods at frequencies of 3, 5 and 7 MHz in the temperature range of 950 to 1600°C (0.02 Pa s < s < 5 Pa s). The bulk moduli of these melts decrease with increasing cation size from Li to Cs and Ca to Ba, and with increasing temperature. The bulk moduli of the Li-, Na-, Ca- and Ba-bearing metasilicate melts decrease with the addition of both TiO2 and SiO2 whereas those of the K-, Rb- and Cs-bearing melts increase. Linear fits to the bulk modulus versus volume fraction of TiO2 do not converge to a common compressibility of the TiO2 component, indicating that the structural role of TiO2 in these melts is dependent on the identity of the cation. This proposition is supported by a number of other property data for these and related melt compositions including heat capacity and density, as well as structural inferences from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES). The compositional dependence of the compressibility of the TiO2 component in these melts explains the difficulty incurred in previous attempts to incorporate TiO2 in calculation schemes for melt compressibility. The empirical relationship KV-4/3 for isostructural materials has been used to evaluate the compressibility-related structural changes occurring in these melts. The alkali metasilicate and disilicate melts are isostructural, independent of the cation. The addition of Ti to the metasilicate composition (i.e. X2TiSiO5), however, results in a series of melts which are not isostructural. The alkaline-earth metasilicate and disilicate compositions are not isostructural, but the addition of Ti to the metasilicate compositions (i.e. XTiSiO5) would appear, on the basis of modulus-volume systematics, to result in the melts becoming isostructural with respect to compressibility

    Removal of ecotoxicity of 17α-ethinylestradiol using TAML/peroxide water treatment

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    17α -ethinylestradiol (EE2), a synthetic oestrogen in oral contraceptives, is one of many pharmaceuticals found in inland waterways worldwide as a result of human consumption and excretion into wastewater treatment systems. At low parts per trillion (ppt), EE2 induces feminisation of male fish, diminishing reproductive success and causing fish population collapse. Intended water quality standards for EE2 set a much needed global precedent. Ozone and activated carbon provide effective wastewater treatments, but their energy intensities and capital/operating costs are formidable barriers to adoption. Here we describe the technical and environmental performance of a fast- developing contender for mitigation of EE2 contamination of wastewater based upon smallmolecule, full-functional peroxidase enzyme replicas called “TAML activators”. From neutral to basic pH, TAML activators with H2O2 efficiently degrade EE2 in pure lab water, municipal effluents and EE2-spiked synthetic urine. TAML/H2O2 treatment curtails estrogenicity in vitro and substantially diminishes fish feminization in vivo. Our results provide a starting point for a future process in which tens of thousands of tonnes of wastewater could be treated per kilogram of catalyst. We suggest TAML/H2O2 is a worthy candidate for exploration as an environmentally compatible, versatile, method for removing EE2 and other pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewaters.Heinz Endowments, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the Steinbrenner Institute for a Steinbrenner Doctoral Fellowship. NMR instrumentation at CMU was partially supported by NSF (CHE-0130903 and CHE-1039870)

    Level of arterial ligation in total mesorectal excision (TME): an anatomical study

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    Introduction: High-tie ligation is a common practice in rectal cancer surgery. However, it compromises perfusion of the proximal limb of the anastomosis. This anatomical study was designed to assess the value of low-tie ligation in order to obtain a tension-free anastomosis. Materials and methods: Consecutive high- and low-tie resections were performed on 15 formalin-fixed specimens, with or without splenic flexure mobilization. If the proximal colon limb could reach the superior aspect of the symphysis pubis with more than 3 cm, the limb would be long enough for a tension-free colorectal anastomosis. Results: In 80% of cases, it was not necessary to perform high-tie ligation as sufficient length was gained with low-tie ligation. The descending branch of the left colic artery was the limiting factor in the other 20% of cases. Resecting half the sigmoid resulted in four times as many tension-free anastomoses after low-tie resection. Conclusion: In the majority of cases, it was not necessary to perform high-tie ligation in order to create a tension-free anastomosis. Low-tie ligation was applicable in 80% of cases and might prevent anastomotic leakage due to insufficient blood supply of the proximal colon limb

    SEPALLATA3: the 'glue' for MADS box transcription factor complex formation

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    A yeast 3-hybrid screen in Arabidopsis reveals MADS box protein complexes: SEP3 is shown to mediate complex formation and floral timing

    On the Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies in Family-Based Designs: A Universal, Robust Analysis Approach and an Application to Four Genome-Wide Association Studies

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    For genome-wide association studies in family-based designs, we propose a new, universally applicable approach. The new test statistic exploits all available information about the association, while, by virtue of its design, it maintains the same robustness against population admixture as traditional family-based approaches that are based exclusively on the within-family information. The approach is suitable for the analysis of almost any trait type, e.g. binary, continuous, time-to-onset, multivariate, etc., and combinations of those. We use simulation studies to verify all theoretically derived properties of the approach, estimate its power, and compare it with other standard approaches. We illustrate the practical implications of the new analysis method by an application to a lung-function phenotype, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in 4 genome-wide association studies

    The global field of multi-family offices: An institutionalist perspective

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    We apply the notion of the organisational field to internationally operating multi-family offices. These organisations specialise on the preservation of enterprising and geographically dispersed families’ fortunes. They provide their services across generations and countries. Based on secondary data of Bloomberg’s Top 50 Family Offices, we show that they constitute a global organisational field that comprises two clusters of homogeneity. Clients may decide between two different configurations of activities, depending on their preferences regarding asset management, resource management, family management, and service architecture. The findings also reveal that multi-family offices make relatively similar value propositions all over the world. The distinctiveness of the clusters within the field is not driven by the embeddedness of the multi-family offices in different national environments or their various degrees of international experience. Rather, it is weakly affected by two out of four possible value propositions, namely the exclusiveness and the transparency of services