3,202 research outputs found

    Charge Dynamics of InAs Quantum Dots Under Resonant and Above-Band Excitation

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    Research involving light-matter interactions in semiconductor nanostructures has been an interesting topic of investigation for decades. Many systems have been studied for not only probing fundamental physics of the solid state, but also for direct development of technological advancements. Research regarding self-assembled, epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs) has proven to be prominent in both regards. The development of a reliable, robust source for the production of quantum bits to be utilized in quantum information protocols is a leading venture in the world of condensed matter and solid-state physics. Fluorescence from resonantly driven QDs is a promising candidate for the production of single, indistinguishable photons to be utilized in quantum information protocols, and the material/sample currently leading the research in regards to this are indium-arsenide (InAs) QDs. However, a few obstacles exist inhibiting InAs QDs’ ability to be an efficient and reliable source of single, indistinguishable photons. The root sources of these problems are mostly associated with the dynamic electrical environment in the vicinity of the QDs. The electrical environment is complex due to inevitable emergence of defects and impurities in the bulk host material during epitaxial growth. The presence of these defects results in a complicated network through which charges can migrate around, into, and out of the QDs, resulting in time-dependent perturbations to the electric potential by which QDs confine charge carriers. Inevitably, this results in time-dependent fluctuations in the optical frequency of the emitted fluorescence, and ultimately a broadening of the time-averaged absorption and emission spectra, dubbed spectral diffusion. Additionally, blinking can occur, which is fluctuations of the fluorescence intensity on time scales that are large relative to the lifetime of confined excited states. Both contribute to a loss of applicability to use these samples as an efficient source of single, indistinguishable photons. The broadening of the time-averaged emission spectrum via spectral diffusion results in a loss of indistinguishability amongst photons emitted at different times, whereas blinking results in an abatement of a consistent single photon source. Understanding the exact electrical environment in which the QDs reside, as well as the complex environment through which carriers migrate can help future implementation of both growth and excitation techniques to minimize these undesirable effects. In this dissertation we explore the electric environment of our sample, the complex pathways through which carriers migrate, and how the resulting charge dynamics affect the intensity and indistinguishability of the emitted fluorescence from resonantly driven InAs QDs

    JWST Pathfinder Telescope Risk Reduction Cryo Test Program

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    In 2014, the Optical Ground Support Equipment was integrated into the large cryo vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and an initial Chamber Commissioning Test was completed. This insured that the support equipment was ready for the three Pathfinder telescope cryo tests. The Pathfinder telescope which consists of two primary mirror segment assemblies and the secondary mirror was delivered to JSC in February 2015 in support of this critical risk reduction test program prior to the flight hardware. This paper will detail the Chamber Commissioning and first optical test of the JWST Pathfinder telescope

    Association mapping of spot blotch resistance in wild barley

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    Spot blotch, caused by Cochliobolus sativus, is an important foliar disease of barley. The disease has been controlled for over 40 years through the deployment of cultivars with durable resistance derived from the line NDB112. Pathotypes of C. sativus with virulence for the NDB112 resistance have been detected in Canada; thus, many commercial cultivars are vulnerable to spot blotch epidemics. To increase the diversity of spot blotch resistance in cultivated barley, we evaluated 318 diverse wild barley accessions comprising the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) for reaction to C. sativus at the seedling stage and utilized an association mapping (AM) approach to identify and map resistance loci. A high frequency of resistance was found in the WBDC as 95% (302/318) of the accessions exhibited low infection responses. The WBDC was genotyped with 558 Diversity Array Technology (DArTŸ) and 2,878 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and subjected to structure analysis before running the AM procedure. Thirteen QTL for spot blotch resistance were identified with DArT and SNP markers. These QTL were found on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H, and 7H and explained from 2.3 to 3.9% of the phenotypic variance. Nearly half of the identified QTL mapped to chromosome bins where spot blotch resistance loci were previously reported, offering some validation for the AM approach. The other QTL mapped to unique genomic regions and may represent new spot blotch resistance loci. This study demonstrates that AM is an effective technique for identifying and mapping QTL for disease resistance in a wild crop progenitor

    The state of the Martian climate

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    60°N was +2.0°C, relative to the 1981–2010 average value (Fig. 5.1). This marks a new high for the record. The average annual surface air temperature (SAT) anomaly for 2016 for land stations north of starting in 1900, and is a significant increase over the previous highest value of +1.2°C, which was observed in 2007, 2011, and 2015. Average global annual temperatures also showed record values in 2015 and 2016. Currently, the Arctic is warming at more than twice the rate of lower latitudes

    X-ray emission from the Sombrero galaxy: discrete sources

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    We present a study of discrete X-ray sources in and around the bulge-dominated, massive Sa galaxy, Sombrero (M104), based on new and archival Chandra observations with a total exposure of ~200 ks. With a detection limit of L_X = 1E37 erg/s and a field of view covering a galactocentric radius of ~30 kpc (11.5 arcminute), 383 sources are detected. Cross-correlation with Spitler et al.'s catalogue of Sombrero globular clusters (GCs) identified from HST/ACS observations reveals 41 X-rays sources in GCs, presumably low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). We quantify the differential luminosity functions (LFs) for both the detected GC and field LMXBs, whose power-low indices (~1.1 for the GC-LF and ~1.6 for field-LF) are consistent with previous studies for elliptical galaxies. With precise sky positions of the GCs without a detected X-ray source, we further quantify, through a fluctuation analysis, the GC LF at fainter luminosities down to 1E35 erg/s. The derived index rules out a faint-end slope flatter than 1.1 at a 2 sigma significance, contrary to recent findings in several elliptical galaxies and the bulge of M31. On the other hand, the 2-6 keV unresolved emission places a tight constraint on the field LF, implying a flattened index of ~1.0 below 1E37 erg/s. We also detect 101 sources in the halo of Sombrero. The presence of these sources cannot be interpreted as galactic LMXBs whose spatial distribution empirically follows the starlight. Their number is also higher than the expected number of cosmic AGNs (52+/-11 [1 sigma]) whose surface density is constrained by deep X-ray surveys. We suggest that either the cosmic X-ray background is unusually high in the direction of Sombrero, or a distinct population of X-ray sources is present in the halo of Sombrero.Comment: 11 figures, 5 tables, ApJ in pres

    Search for new physics with same-sign isolated dilepton events with jets and missing transverse energy