36,080 research outputs found

    Growth of graphene on 6H-SiC by molecular dynamics simulation

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    Classical molecular-dynamics simulations were carried out to study epitaxial growth of graphene on 6H-SiC(0001) substrate. It was found that there exists a threshold annealing temperature above which we observe formation of graphitic structure on the substrate. To check the sensitivity of the simulation results, we tested two empirical potentials and evaluated their reliability by the calculated characteristics of graphene, its carbon-carbon bond-length, pair correlation function, and binding energy.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figure

    Impact of edge-removal on the centrality betweenness of the best spreaders

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    The control of epidemic spreading is essential to avoid potential fatal consequences and also, to lessen unforeseen socio-economic impact. The need for effective control is exemplified during the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, which has inflicted near to a thousand deaths as well as bankruptcies of airlines and related businesses. In this article, we examine the efficacy of control strategies on the propagation of infectious diseases based on removing connections within real world airline network with the associated economic and social costs taken into account through defining appropriate quantitative measures. We uncover the surprising results that removing less busy connections can be far more effective in hindering the spread of the disease than removing the more popular connections. Since disconnecting the less popular routes tend to incur less socio-economic cost, our finding suggests the possibility of trading minimal reduction in connectivity of an important hub with efficiencies in epidemic control. In particular, we demonstrate the performance of various local epidemic control strategies, and show how our approach can predict their cost effectiveness through the spreading control characteristics.Comment: 11 pages, 4 figure

    DDSL: Efficient Subgraph Listing on Distributed and Dynamic Graphs

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    Subgraph listing is a fundamental problem in graph theory and has wide applications in areas like sociology, chemistry, and social networks. Modern graphs can usually be large-scale as well as highly dynamic, which challenges the efficiency of existing subgraph listing algorithms. Recent works have shown the benefits of partitioning and processing big graphs in a distributed system, however, there is only few work targets subgraph listing on dynamic graphs in a distributed environment. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach, called Distributed and Dynamic Subgraph Listing (DDSL), which can incrementally update the results instead of running from scratch. DDSL follows a general distributed join framework. In this framework, we use a Neighbor-Preserved storage for data graphs, which takes bounded extra space and supports dynamic updating. After that, we propose a comprehensive cost model to estimate the I/O cost of listing subgraphs. Then based on this cost model, we develop an algorithm to find the optimal join tree for a given pattern. To handle dynamic graphs, we propose an efficient left-deep join algorithm to incrementally update the join results. Extensive experiments are conducted on real-world datasets. The results show that DDSL outperforms existing methods in dealing with both static dynamic graphs in terms of the responding time