34,455 research outputs found

    How strong are the Rossby vortices?

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    The Rossby wave instability, associated with density bumps in differentially rotating discs, may arise in several different astrophysical contexts, such as galactic or protoplanetary discs. While the linear phase of the instability has been well studied, the nonlinear evolution and especially the saturation phase remain poorly understood. In this paper, we test the non-linear saturation mechanism analogous to that derived for wave-particle interaction in plasma physics. To this end we perform global numerical simulations of the evolution of the instability in a two-dimensional disc. We confirm the physical mechanism for the instability saturation and show that the maximum amplitude of vorticity can be estimated as twice the linear growth rate of the instability. We provide an empirical fitting formula for this growth rate for various parameters of the density bump. We also investigate the effects of the azimuthal mode number of the instability and the energy leakage in the spiral density waves. Finally, we show that our results can be extrapolated to 3D discs.Comment: Accepted for publication in MNRA

    Assessing somatization in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome

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    BACKGROUND: This study examined the prevalence of somatization disorder in Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS) and the utility of two self-report symptom screening tools for assessment of somatization in patients with UCPPS. METHODS: The study sample included 65 patients with UCPPS who enrolled in the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Study at Washington University. Patients completed the PolySymptomatic PolySyndromic Questionnaire (PSPS-Q) (n = 64) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-15 Somatic Symptom Severity Scale (PHQ-15) (n = 50). Review of patient medical records found that only 47% (n = 30) contained sufficient documentation to assess Perley-Guze criteria for somatization disorder. RESULTS: Few (only 6.5%) of the UCPPS sample met Perley-Guze criteria for definite somatization disorder. Perley-Guze somatization disorder was predicted by definite PSPS-Q somatization with at least 75% sensitivity and specificity. Perley-Guze somatization disorder was predicted by severe (\u3e 15) PHQ-15 threshold that had \u3e 90% sensitivity and specificity but was met by only 16% of patients. The moderate (\u3e 10) PHQ-15 threshold had higher sensitivity (100%) but lower specificity (52%) and was met by 52% of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: The PHQ-15 is brief, but it measures symptoms constituting only one dimension of somatization. The PSPS-Q uniquely captures two conceptual dimensions inherent in the definition of somatization disorder, both number of symptoms and symptom distribution across multiple organ systems, with relevance for UCPPS as a syndrome that is not just a collection of urological symptoms but a broader syndrome with symptoms extending beyond the urological system

    Viscous three-dimensional analyses for nozzles for hypersonic propulsion

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    A Navier-Stokes computer code was validated using a number of two- and three-dimensional configurations for both laminar and turbulent flows. The validation data covers a range of freestream Mach numbers from 3 to 14, includes wall pressures, velocity profiles, and skin friction. Nozzle flow fields computed for a generic scramjet nozzle from Mach 3 to 20, wall pressures, wall skin friction values, heat transfer values, and overall performance are presented. In addition, three-dimensional solutions obtained for two asymmetric, single expansion ramp nozzles at a pressure ratio of 10 consists of the internal expansion region in the converging/diverging sections and the external supersonic exhaust in a quiescent ambient environment. The fundamental characteristics that were captured successfully include expansion fans; Mach wave reflections; mixing layers; and nonsymmetrical, multiple inviscid cell, supersonic exhausts. Comparison with experimental data for wall pressure distributions at the center planes shows good agreement

    Multivariate Fitting and the Error Matrix in Global Analysis of Data

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    When a large body of data from diverse experiments is analyzed using a theoretical model with many parameters, the standard error matrix method and the general tools for evaluating errors may become inadequate. We present an iterative method that significantly improves the reliability of the error matrix calculation. To obtain even better estimates of the uncertainties on predictions of physical observables, we also present a Lagrange multiplier method that explores the entire parameter space and avoids the linear approximations assumed in conventional error propagation calculations. These methods are illustrated by an example from the global analysis of parton distribution functions.Comment: 13 pages, 5 figures, Latex; minor clarifications, fortran program made available; Normalization of Hessian matrix changed to HEP standar

    H3++H_3^{++} molecular ions can exist in strong magnetic fields

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    Using the variational method it is shown that for magnetic fields B1011B\geq 10^{11} G there can exist a molecular ion H3++H_3^{++}.Comment: LaTeX, 7 pp, 1 table, 4 figures. Title modified. Consideration of the longitudinal size of the system was adde

    TagF-mediated repression of bacterial type VI secretion systems involves a direct interaction with the cytoplasmic protein Fha

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    The bacterial type VI secretion system (T6SS) delivers effectors into eukaryotic host cells or toxins into bacterial competitor for survival and fitness. The T6SS is positively regulated by the threonine phosphorylation pathway (TPP) and negatively by the T6SS-accessory protein TagF. Here, we studied the mechanisms underlying TagF-mediated T6SS repression in two distinct bacterial pathogens, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We found that in A. tumefaciens, T6SS toxin secretion and T6SS-dependent antibacterial activity are suppressed by a two-domain chimeric protein consisting of TagF and PppA, a putative phosphatase. Remarkably, this TagF domain is sufficient to post-translationally repress the T6SS, and this inhibition is independent of TPP. This repression requires interaction with a cytoplasmic protein, Fha, critical for activating T6SS assembly. In P. aeruginosa, PppA and TagF are two distinct proteins that repress T6SS in a TPP-dependent and -independent pathways, respectively. P. aeruginosa TagF interacts with Fha1, suggesting that formation of this complex represents a conserved TagF-mediated regulatory mechanism. Using TagF variants with substitutions of conserved amino acid residues at predicted protein-protein interaction interfaces, we uncovered evidence that the TagF-Fha interaction is critical for TagF-mediated T6SS repression in both bacteria. TagF inhibits T6SS without affecting T6SS protein abundance in A. tumefaciens, but TagF overexpression reduces the protein levels of all analyzed T6SS components in P. aeruginosa. Our results indicate that TagF interacts with Fha, which in turn could impact different stages of T6SS assembly in different bacteria, possibly reflecting an evolutionary divergence in T6SS control

    Nonlinear robust controller design for multi-robot systems with unknown payloads

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    This work is concerned with the control problem of a multi-robot system handling a payload with unknown mass properties. Force constraints at the grasp points are considered. Robust control schemes are proposed that cope with the model uncertainty and achieve asymptotic path tracking. To deal with the force constraints, a strategy for optimally sharing the task is suggested. This strategy basically consists of two steps. The first detects the robots that need help and the second arranges that help. It is shown that the overall system is not only robust to uncertain payload parameters, but also satisfies the force constraints

    Human African trypanosomiasis : the current situation in endemic regions and the risks for non-endemic regions from imported cases

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    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense and caused devastating epidemics during the 20th century. Due to effective control programs implemented in the last two decades, the number of reported cases has fallen to a historically low level. Although fewer than 977 cases were reported in 2018 in endemic countries, HAT is still a public health problem in endemic regions until it is completely eliminated. In addition, almost 150 confirmed HAT cases were reported in non-endemic countries in the last three decades. The majority of non-endemic HAT cases were reported in Europe, United States and South Africa, due to historical alliances, economic links or geographic proximity to disease endemic countries. Furthermore, with the implementation of the “Belt and Road” project, sporadic imported HAT cases have been reported in China as a warning sign of tropical diseases prevention. In this paper, we explore and interpret the data on HAT incidence and find no positive correlation between the number of HAT cases from endemic and non-endemic countries.This data will provide useful information for better understanding the imported cases of HAT globally in the post-elimination phase
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