138 research outputs found

    Evaluation of the epidemiological importance of classical swine fever infected, E2 sub-unit marker vaccinated animals with RT-nPCR positive blood samples

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    &lt;p&gt;It has been demonstrated that pigs that have been double vaccinated with an E2 sub-unit marker vaccine and that are infected with classical swine fever virus (CSFV) through a natural contact infection may react positive in a CSFV detecting RT-nPCR test, whereas no virus could be isolated by using the conventional virus isolation (VI) technique. To evaluate whether these vaccinated and infected pigs may spread the virus, three experiments were set up. In the first, susceptible pigs were inoculated with serum originating from vaccinated RT-nPCR positive pigs. In the second, vaccinated RT-nPCR positive pigs were brought into contact with sentinel animals. In the third, vertical transmission was evaluated in RT-nPCR positive vaccinated pregnant gilts. In the first two experiments, no proof of virus transmission was found, whereas in the third vertical transmission was observed. The conclusion is that in vaccinated pigs that are positive in RT-nPCR but negative in VI, the level of circulating virus is probably not high enough for horizontal transmission, whereas vertical transmission of the virus is possible.&lt;/p&gt;</p

    Protection of rabbits against enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) using an intimin null mutant

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    BACKGROUND: Diarrhea and mortality resulting from infections with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are of major economic importance in the rabbit meat industry. There is a growing need for an effective vaccine to cope with these problems and to reduce the use of antibiotics. EPEC are characterized by an attaching and effacing virulence mechanism. This is partly mediated by the intimate binding between an adhesin, called intimin, and a translocated receptor (Tir) of prokaryote origin. We constructed an intimin deletion mutant of the rabbit EPEC (REPEC) wild-type strain 97/241.6 (bio-/serogroup 3-/O15) and examined its protective capacity. RESULTS: After verifying its complete loss of virulence, we used the attenuated strain in vaccination-challenge experiments in which complete protection against a homologous, but virulent, strain was observed. The attenuated strain was able to persist in the intestinal lumen, where it elicited an immune response against EPEC-related virulence proteins, as was shown using an EspB-specific ELISA. Despite the priming of an immune response and the generation of specific antibodies, the intimin mutant was not able to fully protect rabbits against challenges with REPEC strains of other bio-/serogroups. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that protection against REPEC infections is at least partly bio-/serogroup dependent and a multivalent vaccine may be needed for protection against the full range of REPEC types. Such a combination vaccine may be developed using intimin null mutants, as the latter were clearly shown to be safe and effective against homologous infections

    Is Draco II one of the faintest dwarf galaxies? First study from Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy

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    We present the first spectroscopic analysis of the faint and compact stellar system Draco II (Dra II, M_V=-2.9+/-0.8, r_h=19^{+8}_{-6} pc), recently discovered in the Pan-STARRS1 3{\pi} survey. The observations, conducted with DEIMOS on the Keck II telescope, establish some of its basic characteristics: the velocity data reveal a narrow peak with 9 member stars at a systemic heliocentric velocity =-347.6^{+1.7}_{-1.8} km/s, thereby confirming Dra II is a satellite of the Milky Way; we infer a velocity dispersion with \sigma_{vr}=2.9+/-2.1 km/s (<8.4 km/s at the 95% confidence level), which implies log_{10}(M_{1/2})=5.5^{+0.4}_{-0.6} and log_{10}((M/L)_{1/2})=2.7^{+0.5}_{-0.8}, in Solar units; furthermore, very weak Calcium triplet lines in the spectra of the high signal-to-noise member stars imply [Fe/H]<-2.1, whilst variations in the line strengths of two stars with similar colours and magnitudes suggest a metallicity spread in Dra II. These new data cannot clearly discriminate whether Draco II is a star cluster or amongst the faintest, most compact, and closest dwarf galaxies. However, the sum of the three --- individually inconclusive --- pieces of evidence presented here, seems to favour the dwarf galaxy interpretation.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figures, 1 table. Excepted for publication in MNRAS. Full table 1 available upon request. v2: moderate revisions of the text, conclusion unchange

    Triangulum II: A Very Metal-poor and Dynamically Hot Stellar System

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    We present a study of the recently discovered compact stellar system Triangulum II. From observations conducted with the DEIMOS spectrograph on Keck II, we obtained spectra for 13 member stars that follow the CMD features of this very faint stellar system and include two bright red giant branch stars. Tri II has a very negative radial velocity (=-383.7^{+3.0}_{-3.3} km/s) that translates to ~ -264 km/s and confirms it is a Milky Way satellite. We show that, despite the small data set, there is evidence that Tri II has complex internal kinematics. Its radial velocity dispersion increases from 4.4^{+2.8}_{-2.0} km/s in the central 2' to 14.1^{+5.8}_{-4.2} km/s outwards. The velocity dispersion of the full sample is inferred to be \sigma_{vr}=9.9^{+3.2}_{-2.2} km/s. From the two bright RGB member stars we measure an average metallicity =-2.6+/-0.2, placing Tri II among the most metal-poor Milky Way dwarf galaxies. In addition, the spectra of the fainter member stars exhibit differences in their line widths that could be the indication of a metallicity dispersion in the system. All these properties paint a complex picture for Tri II, whose nature and current state are largely speculative. The inferred metallicity properties of the system however lead us to favor a scenario in which Tri II is a dwarf galaxy that is either disrupting or embedded in a stellar stream.Comment: 8 pages, 6 figures, 2 tables. ApJ, in press. v2: only minor changes to the tex

    Lacerta i and cassiopeia III. Two luminous and distant andromeda satellite dwarf galaxies found in the 3π pan-starrs1 survey

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    We report the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Lacerta I/Andromeda XXXI (Lac I/And XXXI) and Cassiopeia III/Andromeda XXXII (Cas III/And XXXII), in stacked Pan-STARRS1 r_P1- and i_P1-band imaging data. Both are luminous systems (M_V ~ -12) located at projected distances of 20.3{\deg} and 10.5{\deg} from M31. Lac I and Cas III are likely satellites of the Andromeda galaxy with heliocentric distances of 756^{+44}_{-28} kpc and 772^{+61}_{-56} kpc, respectively, and corresponding M31-centric distances of 275+/-7 kpc and 144^{+6}_{-4} kpc . The brightest of recent Local Group member discoveries, these two new dwarf galaxies owe their late discovery to their large sizes (r_h = 4.2^{+0.4}_{-0.5} arcmin or 912^{+124}_{-93} pc for Lac I; r_h = 6.5^{+1.2}_{-1.0} arcmin or 1456+/-267 pc for Cas III), and consequently low surface brightness (\mu_0 ~ 26.0 mag/arcsec^2), as well as to the lack of a systematic survey of regions at large radii from M31, close to the Galactic plane. This latter limitation is now alleviated by the 3{\pi} Pan-STARRS1 survey, which could lead to the discovery of other distant Andromeda satellite dwarf galaxies.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figures. Accepted for publication in Ap
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