97 research outputs found

    Chemical composition of the above ground biomass of small-sized trees.

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    This time it’s different : työn loppumisen tulevaisuuden historia

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    Kansainv√§linen keskustelu teknologisesta ty√∂tt√∂myydest√§ on 1930-luvun lamasta asti toistunut parinkymmenen vuoden v√§lein. T√§ss√§ ty√∂ss√§ tarkastellaan automaatiokeskustelua, joka ulottui Suomeen 1970‚Äď80-lukujen vaihteessa ja j√§lleen 1990-luvun puoliv√§liss√§. Tarkoituksena on ymm√§rt√§√§, miksi keskustelu toistuu ja millaista keskustelua aiheesta on k√§yty? Tutkimuksen aineisto koostuu Helsingin Sanomissa 1977‚Äď1999 julkaistuista kirjoituksista. T√§ydenn√§n niiden muodostamaa kuvaa muilla dokumenteilla, joihin Helsingin Sanomat viittasi artikkeleissaan. Tarkastelen aineistoa tekstianalyysin avulla ja liit√§n keskustelun kansainv√§liseen kehykseens√§. Julkinen keskustelu teknologisesta ty√∂tt√∂myydest√§ k√§ynnistyy tilanteissa, joissa korkea ty√∂tt√∂myys yhdistyy teknologiseen murrokseen. Huolta aiheuttaa varsinkin automaation ulottuminen uusille talouden sektoreille. Teknologisen ty√∂tt√∂myyden uhkaa on k√§ytetty poliittisen mobilisoinnin v√§lineen√§. Uhkiin vaadittiin ratkaisuja, joita olen t√§ss√§ ty√∂ss√§ kutsunut teknologisen muutoksen sovittelun mekanismeiksi. N√§it√§ olivat esimerkiksi ty√∂ajan lyhent√§minen, koulutus ja ty√∂n k√§sitteen uudelleen m√§√§ritteleminen. Automaatiokeskustelun toistuminen kertoo teknologis-taloudellisen kehityksen dynamiikasta, muutokseen sopeutumisesta ja uusien sosiaalis-institutionaalisten rakenteiden muodostamisesta. T√§st√§ n√§k√∂kulmasta katsottuna varoitukset ty√∂n lopusta tai automaation tuomasta massaty√∂tt√∂myydest√§ eiv√§t n√§ytt√§ydy v√§√§rin√§ ennusteina vaan kamppailuna teknologisen murroksen vaatimista sopeutumisen mekanismeista. Teknologinen ty√∂tt√∂myys on mahdollinen poliittisten valintojen ja yhteiskunnallisten kehityskulkujen seuraus.Since the Great Depression of 1930s technological unemployment debates have re-emerged every 20 years. This thesis examines the automation debates in Finland in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and again in the mid-1990s. The aim is to understand, why the debate re-emerges and what is the nature of the debate? The sources of the study consists of articles published in 1977‚Äď1999 in Helsingin Sanomat. Newspaper articles are complemented with other documents referred to by Helsingin Sanomat. Text analysis is used to study the documents and emerging narratives are incorporated with international context. A public debate on technological unemployment begins in situations where high unemployment combines with technological revolution. Automation anxiety was especially caused by the penetration of automation into new sectors of the economy. Technological unemployment has served as a tool for political mobilization calling for solutions to threats from new technology. In this work these solutions are referred as mediation mechanisms of technological change. Reducing working hours, education and redefining the concept of work are examples of these mediation mechanisms that emerged in the debate. The recurrence of the automation debate tells about the dynamics of techno-economic development, adaptation to change, and the production of new socio-institutional structures. From this point of view ‚Äėthe end of work‚Äô or the threat of mass unemployment do not appear as false predictions but as arguments for required and necessary mediation mechanisms of technological change. Technological unemployment is a potential consequence of political choices and development of the society

    Long term effects on technology enhanced learning : The use of weekly digital lessons in mathematics

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    In this study we investigate the effects of long-term technology enhanced learning (TEL) in mathematics learning performance and fluency, and how technology enhanced learning can be integrated into regular curriculum. The study was conducted in five second grade classes. Two of the classes formed a treatment group and the remaining three formed a control group. The treatment group used TEL in one mathematics lesson per week for 18 to 24 months. Other lessons were not changed. The difference in learning performance between the groups tested using a post-test; for that, we used a mathematics performance test and a mathematics fluency test. The results showed that the treatment group using TEL got statistically significantly higher learning performance results compared to the control group. The difference in arithmetic fluency was not statistically significant even though there was a small difference in favor of the treatment group. However, the difference in errors made in the fluency test was statistically significant in favor of the treatment group.Peer reviewe

    Environmental variation generates environmental opportunist pathogen outbreaks

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    Many socio-economically important pathogens persist and grow in the outside host environment and opportunistically invade host individuals. The environmental growth and opportunistic nature of these pathogens has received only little attention in epidemiology. Environmental reservoirs are, however, an important source of novel diseases. Thus, attempts to control these diseases require different approaches than in traditional epidemiology focusing on obligatory parasites. Conditions in the outsidehost environment are prone to fluctuate over time. This variation is a potentially important driver of epidemiological dynamics and affect the evolution of novel diseases. Using a modelling approach combining the traditional SIRS models to environmental opportunist pathogens and environmental variability, we show that epidemiological dynamics of opportunist diseases are profoundly driven by the quality of environmental variability, such as the long-term predictability and magnitude of fluctuations. When comparing periodic and stochastic environmental factors, for a given variance, stochastic variation is more likely to cause outbreaks than periodic variation. This is due to the extreme values being further away from the mean. Moreover, the effects of variability depend on the underlying biology of the epidemiological system, and which part of the system is being affected. Variation in host susceptibility leads to more severe pathogen outbreaks than variation in pathogen growth rate in the environment. Positive correlation in variation on both targets can cancel the effect of variation altogether. Moreover, the severity of outbreaks is significantly reduced by increase in the duration of immunity. Uncovering these issues helps in understanding and controlling diseases caused by environmental pathogens.Peer reviewe

    Ympäristönsuojelulain täytäntöönpanosäännösten merkitys ja toimivuus ympäristövaikutusten kannalta

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    Selvitys pohjautuu ymp√§rist√∂nsuojelulain uudistamiseen ja sen tarkoituksena on ollut arvioida ymp√§rist√∂nsuojelulain t√§yt√§nt√∂√∂npanos√§√§nn√∂ksiin liittyv√§n aloituslupaj√§rjestelm√§n toimivuutta ja asiaa koskevien s√§√§nn√∂sten kehitt√§mismahdollisuuksia. Selvityksess√§ tarkastellaan ensin voimassaolevaa oikeustilaa. Keskeinen anti selvityksess√§ on korkeimman hallinto-oikeuden soveltamisk√§yt√§nn√∂n kuvaus ja t√§yt√§nt√∂√∂npanos√§√§nn√∂ksiin sis√§ltyvien edellytysten oikeudellinen analysointi oikeusk√§yt√§nn√∂n valossa. Tutkittavana ollut p√§√§t√∂saineisto kattaa vuodet 2012‚Äď2016 ja ne p√§√§t√∂kset, joissa on mainittu ymp√§rist√∂nsuojelulain voimassa oleva 199 ¬ß toiminnan aloittamisesta muutoksenhausta huolimatta tai sit√§ edelt√§nyt aiemman lain 101 ¬ß. Selvityksess√§ on lis√§ksi tarkasteltu voisiko t√§yt√§nt√∂√∂npanos√§√§nn√∂ksi√§ muuttaa siten, ett√§ toiminnan voisi aloittaa ilman hakijalle my√∂nteisen ymp√§rist√∂lupap√§√§t√∂ksen lainvoimaa, jos hakija on ainut muutosta hakenut, eik√§ muutoksenhakutuomioistuin p√§√§tt√§isi toisin. Toinen kuvitteellinen tarkastelutilanne koski toiminnan aloittamista valvovan viranomaisen luvalla osittain, jos hakija on ainoa valittaja, eik√§ valitus koskisi mitenk√§√§n osittain aloitettavan toiminnan osaa. Analysoidun oikeusk√§yt√§nn√∂n perusteella aloituslupaa ja ymp√§rist√∂luvan t√§yt√§nt√∂√∂npanoa koskevan s√§√§ntelyn todetaan olevan t√§ll√§ hetkell√§ oikeudellisesti toimivia. S√§√§ntelyss√§ ei n√§ytt√§isi esiintyv√§n sellaisia oikeudellisia ongelmia tai puutteita, jotka olisivat esteen√§ tehokkaalle soveltamiselle. Selvityksess√§ ei siten esitet√§ muutoksia aloituslupaa koskevaan s√§√§ntelyy

    The effect of brown-rot decay on water adsorption and chemical composition of Scots pine heartwood

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    Abstract - ‚ÄĘ The effect of brown-rot (Coniophora puteana) decay on the water adsorption capacity and concentration of extractives of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) heartwood were studied by comparing corresponding properties of decayed and undecayed wood samples. ‚ÄĘ The samples derived from 39 felled trees having a large between-tree variation in the extractive concentrations, and subsequently in the mass loss in the decay test. The water adsorption capacity, expressed as equilibrium moisture content (EMC), was measured at a high relative humidity (RH ‚ąľ100%, 21 ‚ÄĘ C). ‚ÄĘ In contrast to the widely held belief, the water adsorption capacity of brow-rotted heartwood appeared to be significantly higher than that of undecayed heartwood. ‚ÄĘ The chemical composition of heartwood was changed radically by the fungus: the concentration of stilbenes, resin acids and free fatty acids decreased, while the concentration of soluble sugars increased as a result of decay. In addition, fungal sugars were found in the decayed samples. The concentration of total phenolics increased, which obviously reflected chemical changes in cell wall constituents other than extractives. ‚ÄĘ As a conclusion, the information concerning the hygroscopicity of brown-rotted wood might be valuable e.g. when carrying out repairs on buildings damaged by advanced decay. brown-rot decay / extractives / Scots pine heartwood / mass loss / moisture content R√©sum√© -Effet des pourritures brunes sur l'adsorption de l'eau et la composition chimique du bois de Coeur du pin sylvestre. ‚ÄĘ Nous avons √©tudi√© l'effet de la pr√©sence de pourriture brune (Coniophora puteana) sur la capacit√© d'adsorption de l'eau et sur la concentration d'extractibles du bois de coeur du pin sylvestre (Pinus sylvestris L.) en comparant des √©chantillons contamin√©s et sains obtenus pour 39 arbres √©chantillonn√©s. ‚ÄĘ Dans les essais de d√©composition, on obtient une grande variation entre arbres de la concentration en extractibles et de la perte de masse. La capacit√© d'adsorption de l'eau, exprim√©e comme l'humidit√© d'√©quilibre, a √©t√© mesur√©e √† une humidit√© relative de 100 % √† 21 ‚ÄĘ C. ‚ÄĘ Contrairement √† ce qui √©tait attendu, la d√©composition augmente la capacit√© d'adsorption de l'eau du bois de coeur en atmosph√®re tr√®s humide. La diff√©rence entre arbres des variations de l'humidit√© d'√©quilibre (d√©compos√©-contr√īle) augmente significativement avec l'augmentation de la perte de masse. ‚ÄĘ La composition chimique du bois de coeur est radicalement modifi√©e par le champignon : la concentration de stilb√®nes, de r√©sines acides et d'acides gras libres d√©cro√ģt tandis que la concentration de sucres solubles augmente, cela r√©sultant de la d√©composition. La concentration de compos√©s ph√©no-liques totaux, mesur√©e par le test de d√©composition de Folin-Ciocalteu, augmente. De plus des sucres fongiques d√©rivant des hyphes de C. puteana ont √©t√© retrouv√©s dans les √©chantillons d√©compos√©s. ‚ÄĘ En conclusion, les informations concernant l'hygroscopicit√© du bois brun pourraient √™tre utiles par exemple au moment de proc√©der √† la r√©paration de b√Ętiments endommag√©s par une d√©gradation avanc√©e. pourriture brune / extractibles / perte de masse / teneur en eau / humidit√© relativ

    Long term effects on technology enhanced learning: The use of weekly digital lessons in mathematics

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    In this study we investigate the effects of long-term technology enhanced learning (TEL) in mathematics learning performance and fluency, and how technology enhanced learning can be integrated into regular curriculum. The study was conducted in five second grade classes. Two of the classes formed a treatment group and the remaining three formed a control group. The treatment group used TEL in one mathematics lesson per week for 18 to 24 months. Other lessons were not changed. The difference in learning performance between the groups tested using a post-test; for that, we used a mathematics performance test and a mathematics fluency test. The results showed that the treatment group using TEL got statistically significantly higher learning performance results compared to the control group. The difference in arithmetic fluency was not statistically significant even though there was a small difference in favor of the treatment group. However, the difference in errors made in the fluency test was statistically significant in favor of the treatment group.  </div

    Limits and Virtues of Educational Technology in Elementary School Mathematics

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    The vast development and expansion of educational technology has led to the deconstruction of various barriers and challenges that the traditional approaches were incapable of overcoming. However, a field that still holds a great deal of interest and needs to be strengthened concerns the practices that surround mathematics education. Digital learning tools can provide a partial solution to this problem. In this study, we introduce a curriculum-driven digital practicing tool which accommodates diverse learning styles and educational needs. The representative sample of the pilot included 135 third-grade primary school students, randomly split in two groups, who participated in the 8-week experiment. The findings suggest that the digital practicing path can facilitate the development of subject mastery and increase the accuracy of arithmetic fact calculations. In addition, the use of learning analytics tools can facilitate the knowledge acquisition process and prevent learners from developing misconceptions toward the learning subject.</p

    Luonnonsuojelulailla rauhoitettujen lajien aiheuttamien vahinkojen korvausmenettelyn kehittäminen

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    Selvityksess√§ analysoitiin rauhoitettujen harvinaisten el√§inten tuottamien vahinkojen korvaamiseksi maksettavista avustuksista annetun ymp√§rist√∂ministeri√∂n p√§√§t√∂ksen (1626/1991) nojalla ELY-keskusten tekem√§t avustusp√§√§t√∂kset vuosilta 2012‚Äď2016. Samoin perehdyttiin rauhoitettujen lajien aiheuttamien vahinkojen ennaltaehk√§isy√§ ja korvaamista koskevaan s√§√§ntelyyn Tanskassa, Norjassa, Ruotsissa ja Virossa. Lis√§ksi kartoitettiin Euroopan unionin valtiontukea koskevaa s√§√§ntely√§. Hankkeessa lis√§ksi arvioitiin, voitaisiinko joidenkin lajien tai vahinkotyyppien osalta korvaukset siirt√§√§ vakuutusten piiriin. T√§m√§n lis√§ksi hankkeeseen sis√§ltyi keskeisten sidosryhmien haastattelu. Selvitysryhm√§ laati kaikkiaan 14-kohtaisen listan suosituksista s√§√§ntelyn kehitt√§miseksi. Suositukset koskevat muun ohella Suomen perustuslain vaatimusten huomioon ottamista, Euroopan unionin valtiontukis√§√§ntely√§, vahinkojen korvaamista ja ennaltaehk√§isy√§ sek√§ rahoituksen my√∂nt√§miseen liittyv√§√§ menettely√§. T√§m√§ julkaisu on It√§-Suomen yliopiston ymp√§rist√∂oikeuden tutkimusryhm√§n ja Linnunmaa Oy:n muodostaman konsortion loppuraportti ymp√§rist√∂ministeri√∂n tilaamaan selvitykseen, jonka tavoitteena on luonnonsuojelulailla (1096/1996) rauhoitettujen lajien aiheuttamien vahinkojen korvausmenettelyn kehitt√§mine
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