19 research outputs found

### The Causal Boundary of spacetimes revisited

We present a new development of the causal boundary of spacetimes, originally
introduced by Geroch, Kronheimer and Penrose. Given a strongly causal spacetime
(or, more generally, a chronological set), we reconsider the GKP ideas to
construct a family of completions with a chronology and topology extending the
original ones. Many of these completions present undesirable features, like
those appeared in previous approaches by other authors. However, we show that
all these deficiencies are due to the attachment of an ``excessively big''
boundary. In fact, a notion of ``completion with minimal boundary'' is then
introduced in our family such that, when we restrict to these minimal
completions, which always exist, all previous objections disappear. The optimal
character of our construction is illustrated by a number of satisfactory
properties and examples.Comment: 37 pages, 10 figures; Definition 6.1 slightly modified; multiple
minor changes; one figure added and another replace

### Eternity and the cosmological constant

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the stability of interacting matter
in the presence of a cosmological constant. Using an approach based on the heat
equation, no imaginary part is found for the effective potential in the
presence of a fixed background, which is the n-dimensional sphere or else an
analytical continuation thereof, which is explored in some detail.Comment: 45 pages, 6 figure

### The causal boundary of wave-type spacetimes

A complete and systematic approach to compute the causal boundary of
wave-type spacetimes is carried out. The case of a 1-dimensional boundary is
specially analyzed and its critical appearance in pp-wave type spacetimes is
emphasized. In particular, the corresponding results obtained in the framework
of the AdS/CFT correspondence for holography on the boundary, are reinterpreted
and very widely generalized. Technically, a recent new definition of causal
boundary is used and stressed. Moreover, a set of mathematical tools is
introduced (analytical functional approach, Sturm-Liouville theory, Fermat-type
arrival time, Busemann-type functions).Comment: 41 pages, 1 table. Included 4 new figures, and some small
modifications. To appear in JHE

### On the Singularity Structure and Stability of Plane Waves

We describe various aspects of plane wave backgrounds. In particular, we make
explicit a simple criterion for singularity by establishing a relation between
Brinkmann metric entries and diffeomorphism-invariant curvature information. We
also address the stability of plane wave backgrounds by analyzing the
fluctuations of generic scalar modes. We focus our attention on cases where
after fixing the light-cone gauge the resulting world sheet fields appear to
have negative "mass terms". We nevertheless argue that these backgrounds may be
stable.Comment: 21 pages, 1 figur

### The averaged tensors of the relative energy-momentum and angular momentum in general relativity and some their applications

There exist at least a few different kind of averaging of the differences of
the energy-momentum and angular momentum in normal coordinates {\bf NC(P)}
which give tensorial quantities. The obtained averaged quantities are
equivalent mathematically because they differ only by constant scalar
dimensional factors. One of these averaging was used in our papers [1-8] giving
the {\it canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors}.
In this paper we present another averaging of the differences of the
energy-momentum and angular momentum which gives tensorial quantities with
proper dimensions of the energy-momentum and angular momentum densities. But
these averaged relative energy-momentum and angular momentum tensors, closely
related to the canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors, {\it
depend on some fundamental length $L>0$}.
The averaged relative energy-momentum and angular momentum tensors of the
gravitational field obtained in the paper can be applied, like the canonical
superenergy and angular supermomentum tensors, to {\it coordinate independent}
analysis (local and in special cases also global) of this field.
We have applied the averaged relative energy-momentum tensors to analyze
vacuum gravitational energy and momentum and to analyze energy and momentum of
the Friedman (and also more general) universes. The obtained results are very
interesting, e.g., the averaged relative energy density is {\it positive
definite} for the all Friedman universes.Comment: 30 pages, minor changes referring to Kasner universe

### Lodged in the throat: Internal infinities and AdS/CFT

In the context of AdS3/CFT2, we address spacetimes with a certain sort of
internal infinity as typified by the extreme BTZ black hole. The internal
infinity is a null circle lying at the end of the black hole's infinite throat.
We argue that such spacetimes may be described by a product CFT of the form
CFT-L * CFT-R, where CFT-R is associated with the asymptotically AdS boundary
while CFT-L is associated with the null circle. Our particular calculations
analyze the CFT dual of the extreme BTZ black hole in a linear toy model of
AdS3/CFT2. Since the BTZ black hole is a quotient of AdS3, the dual CFT state
is a corresponding quotient of the CFT vacuum state. This state turns out to
live in the aforementioned product CFT. We discuss this result in the context
of general issues of AdS/CFT duality and entanglement entropy.Comment: 11 pages, 2 figures; v2 - some typos corrected, minor revision

### Einstein energy associated with the Friedmann -Robertson -Walker metric

Following Einstein's definition of Lagrangian density and gravitational field
energy density (Einstein, A., Ann. Phys. Lpz., 49, 806 (1916); Einstein, A.,
Phys. Z., 19, 115 (1918); Pauli, W., {\it Theory of Relativity}, B.I.
Publications, Mumbai, 1963, Trans. by G. Field), Tolman derived a general
formula for the total matter plus gravitational field energy ($P_0$) of an
arbitrary system (Tolman, R.C., Phys. Rev., 35(8), 875 (1930); Tolman, R.C.,
{\it Relativity, Thermodynamics & Cosmology}, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1962));
Xulu, S.S., arXiv:hep-th/0308070 (2003)). For a static isolated system, in
quasi-Cartesian coordinates, this formula leads to the well known result $P_0 =
\int \sqrt{-g} (T_0^0 - T_1^1 -T_2^2 -T_3^3) ~d^3 x$, where $g$ is the
determinant of the metric tensor and $T^a_b$ is the energy momentum tensor of
the {\em matter}. Though in the literature, this is known as "Tolman Mass", it
must be realized that this is essentially "Einstein Mass" because the
underlying pseudo-tensor here is due to Einstein. In fact, Landau -Lifshitz
obtained the same expression for the "inertial mass" of a static isolated
system without using any pseudo-tensor at all and which points to physical
significance and correctness of Einstein Mass (Landau, L.D., and Lifshitz,
E.M., {\it The Classical Theory of Fields}, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 2th ed.,
1962)! For the first time we apply this general formula to find an expression
for $P_0$ for the Friedmann- Robertson -Walker (FRW) metric by using the same
quasi-Cartesian basis. As we analyze this new result, physically, a spatially
flat model having no cosmological constant is suggested. Eventually, it is seen
that conservation of $P_0$ is honoured only in the a static limit.Comment: By mistake a marginally different earlier version was loaded, now the
journal version is uploade

### Black Hole Interaction Energy

The interaction energy between two black holes at large separation distance
is calculated. The first term in the expansion corresponds to the Newtonian
interaction between the masses. The second term corresponds to the spin-spin
interaction. The calculation is based on the interaction energy defined on the
two black holes initial data. No test particle approximation is used. The
relation between this formula and cosmic censorship is discussed.Comment: 18 pages, 2 figures, LaTeX2

### Quasi-local Energy for Spherically Symmetric Spacetimes

We present two complementary approaches for determining the reference for the
covariant Hamiltonian boundary term quasi-local energy and test them on
spherically symmetric spacetimes. On the one hand, we isometrically match the
2-surface and extremize the energy. This can be done in two ways, which we call
programs I (without constraint) and II (with additional constraints). On the
other hand, we match the orthonormal 4-frames of the dynamic and the reference
spacetimes. Then, if we further specify the observer by requiring the reference
displacement to be the timelike Killing vector of the reference, the result is
the same as program I, and the energy can be positive, zero, or even negative.
If, instead, we require that the Lie derivatives of the two-area along the
displacement vector in both the dynamic and reference spacetimes to be the
same, the result is the same as program II, and it satisfies the usual
criteria: the energies are non-negative and vanish only for Minkowski (or
anti-de Sitter) spacetime.Comment: 16 pages, no figure

### Energy-Momentum Localization for a Space-Time Geometry Exterior to a Black Hole in the Brane World

In general relativity one of the most fundamental issues consists in defining
a generally acceptable definition for the energy-momentum density. As a
consequence, many coordinate-dependent definitions have been presented, whereby
some of them utilize appropriate energy-momentum complexes. We investigate the
energy-momentum distribution for a metric exterior to a spherically symmetric
black hole in the brane world by applying the Landau-Lifshitz and Weinberg
prescriptions. In both the aforesaid prescriptions, the energy thus obtained
depends on the radial coordinate, the mass of the black hole and a parameter
$\lambda_{0}$, while all the momenta are found to be zero. It is shown that for
a special value of the parameter $\lambda_{0}$, the Schwarzschild space-time
geometry is recovered. Some particular and limiting cases are also discussed.Comment: 10 pages, sections 1 and 3 slightly modified, references modified and
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