1,739 research outputs found

    Chandra Imaging and Spectroscopy of the Eastern XA Region of the Cygnus Loop Supernova Remnant

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    The XA region of the Cygnus Loop is a bright knot of X-ray emission on the eastern edge of the supernova remnant resulting from the interaction of the supernova blast wave with density enhancements at the edge of a precursor formed cavity. To study the nature and origin of the X-ray emission we use high spatial resolution images from Chandra. Our goal is to probe the density of various spectral extraction regions to form a picture of the cavity wall and characterize the interaction between this supernova and the local interstellar medium. We find that a series of regions along the edge of the X-ray emission appears to trace out the location of the cavity wall. The best fit plasma models result in two temperature component equilibrium models for each region. The low temperature components have densities that are an order of magnitude higher than the high temperature components. The high density plasma may exist in the cavity wall where it equilibrates rapidly and cools efficiently. The low density plasma is interior to the enhancement and heated further by a reverse shock from the wall. Calculations of shock velocities and timescales since shock heating are consistent with this interpretation. Furthermore, we find a bright knot of emission indicative of a discrete interaction of the blast wave with a high density cloud in the cavity wall with a size scale ~0.1 pc. Aside from this, other extractions made interior to the X-ray edge are confused by line of sight projection of various components. Some of these regions show evidence of detecting the cavity wall but their location makes the interpretation difficult. In general, the softer plasmas are well fit at temperatures kT~0.11 keV, with harder plasmas at temperatures of kT~0.27 keV. All regions display consistent metal depletions most notably in N, O, and Ne at an average of 0.54, 0.55, and 0.36 times solar

    DIRBE Minus 2MASS: Confirming the CIRB in 40 New Regions at 2.2 and 3.5 Microns

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    With the release of the 2MASS All-Sky Point Source Catalog, stellar fluxes from 2MASS are used to remove the contribution due to Galactic stars from the intensity measured by DIRBE in 40 new regions in the North and South Galactic polar caps. After subtracting the interplanetary and Galactic foregrounds, a consistent residual intensity of 14.69 +/- 4.49 kJy/sr at 2.2 microns is found. Allowing for a constant calibration factor between the DIRBE 3.5 microns and the 2MASS 2.2 microns fluxes, a similar analysis leaves a residual intensity of 15.62 +/- 3.34 kJy/sr at 3.5 microns. The intercepts of the DIRBE minus 2MASS correlation at 1.25 microns show more scatter and are a smaller fraction of the foreground, leading to a still weak limit on the CIRB of 8.88 +/- 6.26 kJy/sr (1 sigma).Comment: 25 pages LaTeX, 10 figures, 5 tables; Version accepted by the ApJ. Includes minor changes to the text including further discussion of zodiacal light issues and the allowance for variable stars in computing uncertainties in the stellar contribution to the DIRBE intensitie

    The dust morphology of the elliptical Galaxy M86 with SPIRE

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    We present Herschel-SPIRE observations at 250–500 μm of the giant elliptical galaxy M 86 and examine the distribution of the resolved cold dust emission and its relation with other galactic tracers. The SPIRE images reveal three dust components: emission from the central region; a dust lane extending north-south; and a bright emission feature 10 kpc to the south-east. We estimate that ~10^6 M_☉ of dust is spatially coincident with atomic and ionized hydrogen, originating from stripped material from the nearby spiral NGC 4438 due to recent tidal interactions with M 86. The gas-to-dust ratio of the cold gas component ranges from ~20–80. We discuss the different heating mechanisms for the dust features

    Mapping the interstellar medium in galaxies with Herschel/SPIRE

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    The standard method of mapping the interstellar medium in a galaxy, by observing the molecular gas in the CO 1-0 line and the atomic gas in the 21-cm line, is largely limited with current telescopes to galaxies in the nearby universe. In this letter, we use SPIRE observations of the galaxies M99 and M100 to explore the alternative approach of mapping the interstellar medium using the continuum emission from the dust. We have compared the methods by measuring the relationship between the star-formation rate and the surface density of gas in the galaxies using both methods. We find the two methods give relationships with a similar dispersion, confirming that observing the continuum emission from the dust is a promising method of mapping the interstellar medium in galaxies

    Radial distribution of gas and dust in spiral galaxies: The case of M 99 (NGC 4254) and M 100 (NGC 4321)

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    By combining Herschel-SPIRE data with archival Spitzer, H i , and CO maps, we investigate the spatial distribution of gas and dust in the two famous grand-design spirals M 99 and M 100 in the Virgo cluster. Thanks to the unique resolution and sensitivity of the Herschel-SPIRE photometer, we are for the first time able to measure the distribution and extent of cool, submillimetre (submm)-emitting dust inside and beyond the optical radius. We compare this with the radial variation in both the gas mass and the metallicity. Although we adopt a model-independent, phenomenological approach, our analysis provides important insights. We find the dust extending to at least the optical radius of the galaxy and showing breaks in its radial profiles at similar positions as the stellar distribution. The colour indices f350/f500 and f250/f350 decrease radially consistent with the temperature decreasing with radius. We also find evidence of an increasing gas to dust ratio with radius in the outer regions of both galaxies

    SPIRE imaging of M 82: Cool dust in the wind and tidal streams

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    M 82 is a unique representative of a whole class of galaxies, starbursts with superwinds, in the Very Nearby Galaxy Survey with Herschel. In addition, its interaction with the M 81 group has stripped a significant portion of its interstellar medium from its disk. SPIRE maps now afford better characterization of the far-infrared emission from cool dust outside the disk, and sketch a far more complete picture of its mass distribution and energetics than previously possible. They show emission coincident in projection with the starburst wind and in a large halo, much more extended than the PAH band emission seen with Spitzer. Some complex substructures coincide with the brightest PAH filaments, and others with tidal streams seen in atomic hydrogen. We subtract the far-infrared emission of the starburst and underlying disk from the maps, and derive spatially-resolved far-infrared colors for the wind and halo. We interpret the results in terms of dust mass, dust temperature, and global physical conditions. In particular, we examine variations in the dust physical properties as a function of distance from the center and the wind polar axis, and conclude that more than two thirds of the extraplanar dust has been removed by tidal interaction, and not entrained by the starburst wind

    The Herschel Space Observatory view of dust in M81

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    We use Herschel Space Observatory data to place observational constraints on the peak and Rayleigh-Jeans slope of dust emission observed at 70−500 μm in the nearby spiral galaxy M81. We find that the ratios of wave bands between 160 and 500 μm are primarily dependent on radius but that the ratio of 70 to 160 μm emission shows no clear dependence on surface brightness or radius. These results along with analyses of the spectral energy distributions imply that the 160−500 μm emission traces 15−30 K dust heated by evolved stars in the bulge and disc whereas the 70 μm emission includes dust heated by the active galactic nucleus and young stars in star forming regions

    Comorbidity, Pain, Utilization, and Psychosocial Outcomes in Older versus Younger Sickle Cell Adults: The PiSCES Project

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    Background. Patients with SCD now usually live well into adulthood. Whereas transitions into adulthood are now often studied, little is published about aging beyond the transition period. We therefore studied age-associated SCD differences in utilization, pain, and psychosocial variables. Methods. Subjects were 232 adults in the Pain in Sickle Cell Epidemiology Study (PiSCES). Data included demographics, comorbidity, and psychosocial measures. SCD-related pain and health care utilization were recorded in diaries. We compared 3 age groups: 16–25 (transition), 26–36 (younger adults), and 37–64 (older adults) years. Results. Compared to the 2 adult groups, the transition group reported fewer physical challenges via comorbidities, somatic complaints, and pain frequency, though pain intensity did not differ on crisis or noncrisis pain days. The transition group utilized opioids less often, made fewer ambulatory visits, and had better quality of life, but these differences disappeared after adjusting for pain and comorbidities. However, the transition group reported more use of behavioral coping strategies. Conclusion. We found fewer biological challenges, visits, and better quality of life, in transition-aged versus older adults with SCD, but more behavioral coping. Further study is required to determine whether age-appropriate health care, behavioral, or other interventions could improve age-specific life challenges of patients with SCD

    Universal optical amplification without nonlinearity

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    We propose and experimentally realize a new scheme for universal phase-insensitive optical amplification. The presented scheme relies only on linear optics and homodyne detection, thus circumventing the need for nonlinear interaction between a pump field and the signal field. The amplifier demonstrates near optimal quantum noise limited performance for a wide range of amplification factors.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure
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