1,324 research outputs found

    Efficient Uplink Scheduler Architecture of Subscriber Station in IEEE 802.16 System

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    APE1/Ref-1 Role in Redox Signaling: Translational Applications of Targeting the Redox Function of the DNA Repair/Redox Protein APE1/Ref-1

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    The heterogeneity of most cancers diminishes the treatment effectiveness of many cancer-killing regimens. Thus, treatments that hold the most promise are ones that block multiple signaling pathways essential to cancer survival. One of the most promising proteins in that regard is APE1, whose reduction-oxidation activity influences multiple cancer survival mechanisms, including growth, proliferation, metastasis, angiogenesis, and stress responses. With the continued research using APE1 redox specific inhibitors alone or coupled with developing APE1 DNA repair inhibitors it will now be possible to further delineate the role of APE1 redox, repair and protein-protein interactions. Previously, use of siRNA or over expression approaches, while valuable, do not give a clear picture of the two major functions of APE1 since both techniques severely alter the cellular milieu. Additionally, use of the redox-specific APE1 inhibitor, APX3330, now makes it possible to study how inhibition of APE1’s redox signaling can affect multiple tumor pathways and can potentiate the effectiveness of existing cancer regimens. Because APE1 is an upstream effector of VEGF, as well as other molecules that relate to angiogenesis and the tumor microenvironment, it is also being studied as a possible treatment for age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. This paper reviews all of APE1’s functions, while heavily focusing on its redox activities. It also discusses APE1’s altered expression in many cancers and the therapeutic potential of selective inhibition of redox regulation, which is the subject of intense preclinical studies

    Genetic Evidence for Two Species of Elephant in Africa

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    Elephants from the tropical forests of Africa are morphologically distinct from savannah or bush elephants. Dart-biopsy samples from 195 free-ranging African elephants in 21 populations were examined for DNA sequence variation in four nuclear genes (1732 base pairs). Phylogenetic distinctions between African forest elephant and savannah elephant populations corresponded to 58% of the difference in the same genes between elephant genera Loxodonta (African) and Elephas (Asian). Large genetic distance, multiple genetically fixed nucleotide site differences, morphological and habitat distinctions, and extremely limited hybridization of gene flow between forest and savannah elephants support the recognition and conservation management of two African species: Loxodonta africana and Loxodonta cyclotis

    Probability density functions of photochemicals over a coastal area of Northern Italy

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    The present paper surveys the findings of experimental studies and analyses of statistical probability density functions (PDFs) applied to air pollutant concentrations to provide an interpretation of the ground-level distributions of photochemical oxidants in the coastal area of Ravenna (Italy). The atmospheric pollution data set was collected from the local environmental monitoring network for the period 1978-1989. Results suggest that the statistical distribution of surface ozone, once normalised over the solar radiation PDF for the whole measurement period, follows a log-normal law as found for other pollutants. Although the Weibull distribution also offers a good fit of the experimental data, the area’s meteorological features seem to favour the former distribution once the statistical index estimates have been analysed. Local transport phenomena are discussed to explain the data tail trends

    EH Performance of an Hybrid Energy Harvester for Autonomous Nodes

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    This paper reports the Energy Harvesting (EH) performance of a hybrid energy harvester able to collect energy form different energy sources: thermal, solar and electromagnetic. The main block of the system is the quarter-wavelength patch antenna, operating in the Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) frequency band 2.4-2.5 GHz. The antenna has been designed and optimized to support a Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG) and a Solar Cell on its top. Moreover, a rectifier has been designed to work with the antenna and a DC-DC converter has been used to manage the TEG output voltage

    The Elephants of Gash-Barka, Eritrea: Nuclear and Mitochondrial Genetic Patterns

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    Eritrea has one of the northernmost populations of African elephants. Only about 100 elephants persist in the Gash-Barka administrative zone. Elephants in Eritrea have become completely isolated, with no gene flow from other elephant populations. The conservation of Eritrean elephants would benefit from an understanding of their genetic affinities to elephants elsewhere on the continent and the degree to which genetic variation persists in the population. Using dung samples from Eritrean elephants, we examined 18 species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms in 3 nuclear genes, sequences of mitochondrial HVR1 and ND5, and genotyped 11 microsatellite loci. The sampled Eritrean elephants carried nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers establishing them as savanna elephants, with closer genetic affinity to Eastern than to North Central savanna elephant populations, and contrary to speculation by some scholars that forest elephants were found in Eritrea. Mitochondrial DNA diversity was relatively low, with 2 haplotypes unique to Eritrea predominating. Microsatellite genotypes could only be determined for a small number of elephants but suggested that the population suffers from low genetic diversity. Conservation efforts should aim to protect Eritrean elephants and their habitat in the short run, with restoration of habitat connectivity and genetic diversity as long-term goals.https://digitalcommons.snc.edu/faculty_staff_works/1030/thumbnail.jp

    Seasonal budgets of ozone and oxidant precursors in an industrial coastal area of northern Italy

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    The seasonal budgets and evolution of photochemical oxidants reported for greater Ravenna's urban-industrial area in the present study were calculated using the combined data from on-site systematic surveys (1978-1989) and from the monitoring network of the local environmental authorities. The notable differences in the concentrations of ozone and nitrogen oxides depended on season, and meteorological variables showed a marked correlation to the seasonal budget of trace constituents. The weak local circulation, the land-sea breeze system, and high solar radiation in summer, which may persist at length because of the anticyclonic conditions, can produce episodes of intense photochemical reactions. In winter, by contrast, low solar radiation and the absence of the breeze system results in very different evolutions of both pollutant concentrations and their seasonal budget