452 research outputs found

### Grover's search algorithm: An optical approach

The essential operations of a quantum computer can be accomplished using
solely optical elements, with different polarization or spatial modes
representing the individual qubits. We present a simple all-optical
implementation of Grover's algorithm for efficient searching, in which a
database of four elements is searched with a single query. By `compiling' the
actual setup, we have reduced the required number of optical elements from 24
to only 12. We discuss the extension to larger databases, and the limitations
of these techniques.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures. To appear in a special issue of the Journal of
Modern Optics -- "The Physics of Quantum Information

### Interaction-free quantum computation

In this paper, we study the quantum computation realized by an
interaction-free measurement (IFM). Using Kwiat et al.'s interferometer, we
construct a two-qubit quantum gate that changes one particle's trajectory
according to whether or not the other particle exists in the interferometer. We
propose a method for distinguishing Bell-basis vectors, each of which consists
of a pair of an electron and a positron, by this gate. (This is called the
Bell-basis measurement.) This method succeeds with probability 1 in the limit
of $N \to \infty$, where N is the number of beam splitters in the
interferometer. Moreover, we can carry out a controlled-NOT gate operation by
the above Bell-basis measurement and the method proposed by Gottesman and
Chuang. Therefore, we can prepare a universal set of quantum gates by the IFM.
This means that we can execute any quantum algorithm by the IFM.Comment: 11 pages, 7 figures, LaTex2

### Hyperentangled Bell-state analysis

It is known that it is impossible to unambiguously distinguish the four Bell
states encoded in pairs of photon polarizations using only linear optics.
However, hyperentanglement, the simultaneous entanglement in more than one
degree of freedom, has been shown to assist the complete Bell analysis of the
four Bell states (given a fixed state of the other degrees of freedom). Yet
introducing other degrees of freedom also enlarges the total number of
Bell-like states. We investigate the limits for unambiguously distinguishing
these Bell-like states. In particular, when the additional degree of freedom is
qubit-like, we find that the optimal one-shot discrimination schemes are to
group the 16 states into 7 distinguishable classes, and that an unambiguous
discrimination is possible with two identical copies.Comment: typos corrected, to appear in PRA, 5 pages, 2 figures, 2 table

### How many photons are needed to distinguish two transparencies?

We give a bound on the minimum number of photons that must be absorbed by any
quantum protocol to distinguish between two transparencies. We show how a
quantum Zeno method in which the angle of rotation is varied at each iteration
can attain this bound in certain situations.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

### Optical simulation of quantum logic

A constructive method for simulating small-scale quantum circuits by use of linear optical devices is presented. It relies on the representation of several quantum bits by a single photon, and on the implementation of universal quantum gates using simple optical components (beam splitters, phase shifters, etc.). This suggests that the optical realization of small quantum networks with present-day quantum optics technology is a reasonable goal. This technique could be useful for demonstrating basic concepts of simple quantum algorithms or error-correction schemes. The optical analog of a nontrivial three-bit quantum circuit is presented as an illustration

### Atomic vapor-based high efficiency optical detectors with photon number resolution

We propose a novel approach to the important fundamental problem of detecting
weak optical fields at the few photon level. The ability to detect with high
efficiency (>99%), and to distinguish the number of photons in a given time
interval is a very challenging technical problem with enormous potential
pay-offs in quantum communications and information processing. Our proposal
diverges from standard solid-state photo-detector technology by employing an
atomic vapor as the active medium, prepared in a specific quantum state using
laser radiation. The absorption of a photon will be aided by a dressing laser,
and the presence or absence of an excited atom will be detected using the
``cycling transition'' approach perfected for ion traps. By first incorporating
an appropriate upconversion scheme, our method can be applied to a wide variety
of optical wavelengths.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

### High-efficiency quantum interrogation measurements via the quantum Zeno effect

The phenomenon of quantum interrogation allows one to optically detect the
presence of an absorbing object, without the measuring light interacting with
it. In an application of the quantum Zeno effect, the object inhibits the
otherwise coherent evolution of the light, such that the probability that an
interrogating photon is absorbed can in principle be arbitrarily small. We have
implemented this technique, demonstrating efficiencies exceeding the 50%
theoretical-maximum of the original ``interaction-free'' measurement proposal.
We have also predicted and experimentally verified a previously unsuspected
dependence on loss; efficiencies of up to 73% were observed and the feasibility
of efficiencies up to 85% was demonstrated.Comment: 4 pages, 3 postscript figures. To appear in Phys. Rev. Lett;
submitted June 11, 199

### Distinguishability of hyperentangled Bell state by linear evolution and local projective measurement

Measuring an entangled state of two particles is crucial to many quantum
communication protocols. Yet Bell state distinguishability using a finite
apparatus obeying linear evolution and local measurement is theoretically
limited. We extend known bounds for Bell-state distinguishability in one and
two variables to the general case of entanglement in $n$ two-state variables.
We show that at most $2^{n+1}-1$ classes out of $4^n$ hyper-Bell states can be
distinguished with one copy of the input state. With two copies, complete
distinguishability is possible. We present optimal schemes in each case.Comment: 5 pages, 2 figure

### A Transactional Analysis of Interaction Free Measurements

The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics is applied to the
"interaction-free" measurement scenario of Elitzur and Vaidman and to the
Quantum Zeno Effect version of the measurement scenario by Kwiat, et al. It is
shown that the non-classical information provided by the measurement scheme is
supplied by the probing of the intervening object by incomplete offer and
confirmation waves that do not form complete transactions or lead to real
interactions.Comment: Accepted for publication in Foundations of Physics Letter

### Hyperentanglement of two photons in three degrees of freedom

A 6-qubit hyperentangled state has been realized by entangling two photons in
three degrees of freedom. These correspond to the polarization, the
longitudinal momentum and the indistinguishable emission produced by a
2-crystal system operating with Type I phase matching in the spontaneous
parametric down conversion regime. The state has been characterized by a
chained interferometric apparatus and its complete entangled nature has been
tested by a novel witness criterium specifically introduced for hyperentangled
states. The experiment represents the first realization of a genuine
hyperentangled state with the maximum entanglement between the two particles
allowed in the given Hilbert space.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figures, Revtex

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