2,686 research outputs found

    Dynamics of an Acoustic Polaron in One-Dimensional Electron-Lattice System

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    The dynamical behavior of an acoustic polaron in typical non-degenerate conjugated polymer, polydiacetylene, is numerically studied by using Su-Schrieffer-Heeger's model for the one dimensional electron-lattice system. It is confirmed that the velocity of a polaron accelerated by a constant electric field shows a saturation to a velocity close to the sound velocity of the system, and that the width of a moving polaron decreases as a monotonic function of the velocity tending to zero at the saturation velocity. The effective mass of a polaron is estimated to be about one hundred times as heavy as the bare electron mass. Furthermore the linear mode analysis in the presence of a polaron is carried out, leading to the conclusion that there is only one localized mode, i.e. the translational mode. This is confirmed also from the phase shift of extended modes. There is no localized mode corresponding to the amplitude mode in the case of the soliton in polyacetylene. Nevertheless the width of a moving polaron shows small oscillations in time. This is found to be related to the lowest odd symmetry extended mode and to be due to the finite size effect.Comment: 12 pages, latex, 9 figures (postscript figures abailble on request to [email protected]) to be published in J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. vol.65 (1996) No.

    Semi-Phenomenological Analysis of Dynamics of Nonlinear Excitations in One-Dimensional Electron-Phonon System

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    The structure of moving nonlinear excitations in one-dimensional electron-phonon systems is studied semi-phenomenologically by using an effective action in which the width of the nonlinear excitation is treated as a dynamical variable. The effective action can be derived from Su, Schrieffer and Heeger's model or its continuum version proposed by Takayama, Lin-Liu and Maki with an assumption that the nonlinear excitation moves uniformly without any deformation except the change of its width. The form of the action is essentially the same as that discussed by Bishop and coworkers in studying the dynamics of the soliton in polyacetylene, though some details are different. For the moving excitation with a velocity vv, the width is determined by minimizing the effective action. A requirement that there must be a minimum in the action as a function of its width provides a maximum velocity. The velocity dependence of the width and energy can be determined. The motions of a soliton in p olyacetylene and an acoustic polaron in polydiacetylene are studied within this formulation. The obtained results are in good agreement with those of numerical simulations.Comment: 19 pages, LaTeX, 7 Postscript figures, to be published in J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. vol.65 (1996) No.

    The impact of two-dimensional elastic disk

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    The impact of a two-dimensional elastic disk with a wall is numerically studied. It is clarified that the coefficient of restitution (COR) decreases with the impact velocity. The result is not consistent with the recent quasi-static theory of inelastic collisions even for very slow impact. The abrupt drop of COR is found due to the plastic deformation of the disk, which is assisted by the initial internal motion.(to be published in J. Phys. Soc. Jpn.)Comment: 6 Pages,2 figure

    The anomalous behavior of coefficient of normal restitution in the oblique impact

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    The coefficient of normal restitution in an oblique impact is theoretically studied. Using a two-dimensional lattice models for an elastic disk and an elastic wall, we demonstrate that the coefficient of normal restitution can exceed one and has a peak against the incident angle in our simulation. Finally, we explain these phenomena based upon the phenomenological theory of elasticity.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figures, to be appeared in PR

    How Hertzian solitary waves interact with boundaries in a 1-D granular medium

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    We perform measurements, numerical simulations, and quantitative comparisons with available theory on solitary wave propagation in a linear chain of beads without static preconstrain. By designing a nonintrusive force sensor to measure the impulse as it propagates along the chain, we study the solitary wave reflection at a wall. We show that the main features of solitary wave reflection depend on wall mechanical properties. Since previous studies on solitary waves have been performed at walls without these considerations, our experiment provides a more reliable tool to characterize solitary wave propagation. We find, for the first time, precise quantitative agreements.Comment: Proof corrections, ReVTeX, 11 pages, 3 eps (Focus and related papers on http://www.supmeca.fr/perso/jobs/

    Local atomic structure and discommensurations in the charge density wave of CeTe3

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    The local structure of CeTe3 in the incommensurate charge density wave (IC-CDW) state has been obtained using atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of x-ray diffraction data. Local atomic distortions in the Te-nets due to the CDW are larger than observed crystallographically, resulting in distinct short and long Te-Te bonds. Observation of different distortion amplitudes in the local and average structures are explained by the discommensurated nature of the CDW since the PDF is sensitive to the local displacements within the commensurate regions whereas the crystallographic result averages over many discommensurated domains. The result is supported by STM data. This is the first quantitative local structural study within the commensurate domains in an IC-CDW system.Comment: 4 pages, 4 figure

    Collision of One-Dimensional Nonlinear Chains

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    We investigate one-dimensional collisions of unharmonic chains and a rigid wall. We find that the coefficient of restitution (COR) is strongly dependent on the velocity of colliding chains and has a minimum value at a certain velocity. The relationship between COR and collision velocity is derived for low-velocity collisions using perturbation methods. We found that the velocity dependence is characterized by the exponent of the lowest unharmonic term of interparticle potential energy

    Scaling properties of granular materials

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    Given an assembly of viscoelastic spheres with certain material properties, we raise the question how the macroscopic properties of the assembly will change if all lengths of the system, i.e. radii, container size etc., are scaled by a constant. The result leads to a method to scale down experiments to lab-size.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure