76 research outputs found

    Record-breaking ozone loss in the Arctic winter 2010/2011: comparison with 1996/1997

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    We present a detailed discussion of the chemical and dynamical processes in the Arctic winters 1996/1997 and 2010/2011 with high resolution chemical transport model (CTM) simulations and space-based observations. In the Arctic winter 2010/2011, the lower stratospheric minimum temperatures were below 195 K for a record period of time, from December to mid-April, and a strong and stable vortex was present during that period. Simulations with the Mimosa-Chim CTM show that the chemical ozone loss started in early January and progressed slowly to 1 ppmv (parts per million by volume) by late February. The loss intensified by early March and reached a record maximum of ~2.4 ppmv in the late March–early April period over a broad altitude range of 450–550 K. This coincides with elevated ozone loss rates of 2–4 ppbv sh^(−1) (parts per billion by volume/sunlit hour) and a contribution of about 30–55% and 30–35% from the ClO-ClO and ClO-BrO cycles, respectively, in late February and March. In addition, a contribution of 30–50% from the HO_x cycle is also estimated in April. We also estimate a loss of about 0.7–1.2 ppmv contributed (75%) by the NO_x cycle at 550–700 K. The ozone loss estimated in the partial column range of 350–550 K exhibits a record value of ~148 DU (Dobson Unit). This is the largest ozone loss ever estimated in the Arctic and is consistent with the remarkable chlorine activation and strong denitrification (40–50%) during the winter, as the modeled ClO shows ~1.8 ppbv in early January and ~1 ppbv in March at 450–550 K. These model results are in excellent agreement with those found from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder observations. Our analyses also show that the ozone loss in 2010/2011 is close to that found in some Antarctic winters, for the first time in the observed history. Though the winter 1996/1997 was also very cold in March–April, the temperatures were higher in December–February, and, therefore, chlorine activation was moderate and ozone loss was average with about 1.2 ppmv at 475–550 K or 42 DU at 350–550 K, as diagnosed from the model simulations and measurements

    Rapid meridional transport of tropical airmasses to the Arctic during the major stratospheric warming in January 2003

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    International audienceWe present observations of unusually high values of ozone and N2O in the middle stratosphere that were observed by the airborne submillimeter radiometer ASUR in the Arctic. The observations took place in the meteorological situation of a major stratospheric warming that occurred in mid-January 2003 and was dominated by a wave 2 event. On 23 January 2003 the observed N2O and O3 mixing ratios around 69° N in the middle stratosphere reached maximum values of ~190 ppb and ~10 ppm, respectively. The similarities of these N2O profiles in a potential temperature range between 800 and 1200 K with N2O observations around 20° N on 1 March 2003 by the same instrument suggest that the observed Arctic airmasses were transported from the tropics quasi-isentropically. This is confirmed by 5-day back trajectory calculations which indicate that the airmasses between about 800 and 1000 K had been located around 20° N 3?5 days prior to the measurement in the Arctic. Calculations with a linearized ozone chemistry model along calculated as well as idealized trajectories, initialized with the low-latitude ASUR ozone measurements, give reasonable agreement with the Arctic ozone measurement by ASUR. PV distributions suggest that these airmasses did not stay confined in the Arctic region which makes it unlikely that this dynamical situation lead to the formation of dynamically caused pockets of low ozone

    Chemical ozone loss and chlorine activation in the Antarctic winters of 2013–2020

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    The annual formation of an ozone hole in the austral spring has regional and global climate implications. The Antarctic ozone hole has already changed the precipitation, temperature and atmospheric circulation patterns, and thus the surface climate of many regions in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Therefore, the study of ozone loss variability is important to assess its consequential effects on the climate and public health. Our study uses satellite observations from the Microwave Limb Sounder on Aura and the passive-tracer method to quantify the ozone loss for the past 8 years (2013–2020) in the Antarctic. We observe the highest ozone loss (about 3.5 ppmv) in 2020, owing to the high chlorine activation (about 2.2 ppbv), steady polar vortex, and huge expanses of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) (12.6×106 km2) in the winter. The spring of 2019 also showed a high ozone loss, although the year had a rare minor warming in mid-September. The chlorine activation in 2015 (1.9 ppbv) was the weakest, and the wave forcing from the lower latitudes was very high in 2017 (up to −60 km s−1). The analysis shows significant interannual variability in the Antarctic ozone as compared to the immediate previous decade (2000–2010). The study helps to understand the role of dynamics and chemistry in the interannual variability of ozone depletion over the years.</p

    Biogenic link to the recent increase in atmospheric methane over India

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    Methane (CH4) is a prominent Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and its global atmospheric concentration has increased significantly since the year 2007. Anthropogenic CH4 emissions are projected to be 9390 million metric tonnes by 2020. Here, we present the long–term changes in atmospheric methane over India and suggest possible alternatives to reduce soil emissions from paddy fields. The increase in atmospheric CH4 concentrations from 2009 to 2020 in India is significant, about 0.0765 ppm/decade. The Indo-Gangetic Plains, Peninsular India and Central India show about 0.075, 0.076 and 0.074 ppm/decade, respectively, in 2009–2020. Seasonal variations in CH4 emissions depend mostly on agricultural activities and meteorology, and contribution during the agricultural intensive period of Kharif–Rabi (i.e., June–December) is substantial in this regard. The primary reason for agricultural soil emissions is the application of chemical fertilizers to improve crop yield. However, for rice farming, soil amendments involving stable forms of carbon can reduce GHG emissions and improve soil carbon status. High crop production in pot culture experiment resulted in lower potential yield–scaled GHG emissions in rice with biochar supplement. The human impact of global warming induced by agricultural activities could be reduced by using biochar as a natural solution

    The unusual persistence of an ozone hole over a southern mid-latitude station during the Antarctic spring 2009: a multi-instrument study

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    International audienceRecord-low ozone column densities (with a minimum of 212 DU) persisted over three weeks at the Río Gallegos NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change) station (51.5° S, 69.3° W) in November 2009. Total ozone remained two standard deviations below the climatological mean for five consecutive days during this period. The statistical analysis of 30 years of satellite data from the Multi Sensor Reanalysis (MSR) database for Río Gallegos revealed that such a long-lasting low-ozone episode is a rare occurrence. The event is examined using height-resolved ozone lidar measurements at Río Gallegos, and observations from satellite and ground-based instruments. The computed relative difference between the measured total ozone and the climatological monthly mean shows reductions varying between 10 and 30% with an average decrease of 25%. The mean absolute difference of total ozone column with respect to climatological monthly mean ozone column is around 75 DU. Extreme values of the UV index (UVI) were measured at the ground for this period, with the daily maximum UVI of around 13 on 15 and 28 November. The high-resolution MIMOSA-CHIM (Modélisation Isentrope du transport Méso-échelle de l'Ozone Stratosphérique par Advection) model was used to interpret the ozone depletion event. An ozone decrease of about 2 ppmv was observed in mid-November at the 550 K isentropic level (~22 km). The position of Río Gallegos relative to the polar vortex was classified using equivalent latitude maps. During the second week of November, the vortex was over the station at all isentropic levels, but after 20 November and until the end of the month, only the 10 lower levels in the stratosphere were affected by vortex overpasses with ozone poor air masses. A rapid recovery of the ozone column density was observed later, due to an ozone rich filament moving over Río Gallegos between 18 and 24 km in the first two weeks of December 2009

    Validation and data characteristics of methane and nitrous oxide profiles observed by MIPAS and processed with Version 4.61 algorithm

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    The ENVISAT validation programme for the atmospheric instruments MIPAS, SCIAMACHY and GOMOS is based on a number of balloon-borne, aircraft, satellite and ground-based correlative measurements. In particular the activities of validation scientists were coordinated by ESA within the ENVISAT Stratospheric Aircraft and Balloon Campaign or ESABC. As part of a series of similar papers on other species [this issue] and in parallel to the contribution of the individual validation teams, the present paper provides a synthesis of comparisons performed between MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles produced by the current ESA operational software (Instrument Processing Facility version 4.61 or IPF v4.61, full resolution MIPAS data covering the period 9 July 2002 to 26 March 2004) and correlative measurements obtained from balloon and aircraft experiments as well as from satellite sensors or from ground-based instruments. In the middle stratosphere, no significant bias is observed between MIPAS and correlative measurements, and MIPAS is providing a very consistent and global picture of the distribution of CH4 and N2O in this region. In average, the MIPAS CH4 values show a small positive bias in the lower stratosphere of about 5%. A similar situation is observed for N2O with a positive bias of 4%. In the lower stratosphere/upper troposphere (UT/LS) the individual used MIPAS data version 4.61 still exhibits some unphysical oscillations in individual CH4 and N2O profiles caused by the processing algorithm (with almost no regularization). Taking these problems into account, the MIPAS CH4 and N2O profiles are behaving as expected from the internal error estimation of IPF v4.61 and the estimated errors of the correlative measurements

    SCIAMACHY validation by aircraft remote measurements: design, execution, and first results of the SCIA-VALUE mission

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    International audienceFor the first time three different remote sensing instruments ? a sub-millimeter radiometer, a differential optical absorption spectrometer in the UV-visible spectral range, and a lidar ? were deployed aboard DLR's meteorological research aircraft Falcon 20 to validate a large number of SCIAMACHY level 2 and off-line data products such as O3, NO2, N2O, BrO, OClO, H2O, aerosols, and clouds. Within two main validation campaigns of the SCIA-VALUE mission (SCIAMACHY VALidation and Utilization Experiment) extended latitudinal cross-sections stretching from polar regions to the tropics as well as longitudinal cross sections at polar latitudes at about 70° N and the equator have been generated. This contribution gives an overview over the campaigns performed and reports on the observation strategy for achieving the validation goals. We also emphasize the synergetic use of the novel set of aircraft instrumentation and the usefulness of this innovative suite of remote sensing instruments for satellite validation
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