229 research outputs found

    Axiomatizing proof tree concepts in Bounded Arithmetic

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    We construct theories of Cook-Nguyen style two-sort bounded arithmetic whose provably total functions are exactly those in LOGCFL and LOGDCFL. Axiomatizations of both theories are based on the proof tree size characterizations of these classes. We also show that our theory for LOGCFL proves a certain formulation of the pumping lemma for context-free languages

    Linear algebra in bounded arithmetic (Theory and Applications of Proof and Computation)

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    Computational Method for Arbitrarily-Shaped Elastic Objects in Free-Surface Flows

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    Source: ICHE Conference Archive - https://mdi-de.baw.de/icheArchiv

    Laparoscopic and Endoscopic Cooperative Surgery for Gastric Submucosal Tumor Near Esophagogastric Junction With Sliding Hiatal Hernia

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    The usefulness of laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) for gastric submucosal tumors in the cardiac region has been reported in recent years. However, LECS for submucosal tumors at the esophagogastric junction with hiatal sliding esophageal hernia has not been reported, and its validity as a treatment method is unknown. The patient was a 51-year-old man with a growing submucosal tumor in the cardiac region. Surgical resection was indicated because a definitive diagnosis of the tumor was not determined. The lesion was a luminal protrusion tumor, located on the posterior wall of the stomach 20 mm from the esophagogastric junction, and had a maximum diameter of 16.3 mm on endoscopic ultrasound examination. Because of the hiatal hernia, the lesion could not be detected from the gastric side by endoscopy. Local resection was considered to be feasible because the resection line did not extend into the esophageal mucosa and the resection site could be less than half the circumference of the lumen. The submucosal tumor was resected completely and safely by LECS. The tumor was diagnosed as a gastric smooth muscle tumor finally. Nine months after surgery, a follow-up endoscopy showed reflux esophagitis. LECS was a useful technique for submucosal tumors of the cardiac region with hiatal hernia, but fundoplication might be considered for preventing backflow of gastric acid

    Dose-Dependent Effects of Amino Acids on Clinical Outcomes in Adult Medical Inpatients Receiving Only Parenteral Nutrition: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using a Japanese Medical Claims Database

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    The majority of inpatients requiring parenteral nutrition (PN) do not receive adequate amino acid, which may negatively impact clinical outcomes. We investigated the influence of amino acid doses on clinical outcomes in medical adult inpatients fasting >10 days and receiving only PN, using Japanese medical claims database. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality, and the secondary endpoints included deterioration of activities of daily living (ADL), intravenous catheter infection, hospital readmission, hospital length of stay (LOS), and total medical costs. Patients were divided into four groups according to their mean prescribed daily amino acid doses from Days 4 to 10 of fasting: Adequate (>= 0.8 g/kg/day), Moderate (>= 0.6-= 0.4-<0.6 g/kg/day), and Very low (<0.4 g/kg/day). Multivariate logistic or multiple regression analyses were performed with adjustments for patient characteristics (total n = 86,702). The Adequate group was used as the reference in all analyses. For the Moderate, Low, and Very low groups, adjusted ORs (95% CI) of in-hospital mortality were 1.20 (1.14-1.26), 1.43 (1.36-1.51), and 1.72 (1.62-1.82), respectively, and for deterioration of ADL were 1.21 (1.11-1.32), 1.34 (1.22-1.47), and 1.22 (1.09-1.37), respectively. Adjusted regression coefficients (95% CI) of hospital LOS were 1.2 (0.4-2.1), 1.5 (0.6-2.4), and 2.9 (1.8-4.1), respectively. Lower prescribed doses of amino acids were associated with worse clinical outcomes including higher in-hospital mortality

    Similarity in Sequential Bilateral Transient Osteoporosis of the Hip

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    CASE: Three middle-aged men with habitual drinking developed unilateral hip pain and were referred for osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH). Radiographs showed osteopenia, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow edema (BME). After several months, the patients' symptoms resolved and radiographic images normalized. More than 6 months later, the contralateral side showed the same clinical course. CONCLUSION: Transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH) resembles ONFH but heals spontaneously. We report 3 rare cases of sequential TOH, similar in that they occurred in middle-aged male habitual drinkers at risk for ONFH, characterized by diffuse BME on MRI and radiographic resolution
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